К вопросу о лабильных глаголах английского языка
In my article, I address the factors which favor using a verb as labile (both transitive and intransitive, with no formal change required).
Haspelmath (1993) proposes that the key feature which conditions a way of marking (in)transitivity of verbs in the transitive / intransitive verb pair is the spontaneity parameter.
However, the statistical analysis of Haspelmath’s data shows that for labile / ambitransitive verb the main parameter is the lexical semantic class of the verb, not the degree of spontaneity. This lets us discover a more general principle: phenomena which are not purely grammatical, but rather lexico-grammatical (as lability) depend on lexical features, not on generalized grammatical or semantic parameters.
In the paper I consider the causative constructions in Russian. I examine the use of tense and aspect in constructions with the verbs zastavit’ / zastavljat’ ‘make’ and pozvolit’ / pozvoljat’ ‘let, allow’. I also include the verb delat’ / sdelat ‘make’ in my analysis, though this verb has special syntactic and semantic characteristics.
The striking feature of the causative constructions with eventive subjects is that the tensed forms and temporal adverbs in these constructions do not obligatorily refer to the causing situation. The tensed forms and adverbials sometimes refer only to the caused situation.
I assume that it is the nature of events vs. participants that is responsible for these distinctions. Each dynamic event is associated with some result. I have shown that in some cases what the tense of the causative verb and temporal adverbials refer to is the result of the causing event, and not the causing event in the narrow sense.
The topic of this article has to do with the types of interaction between prefixes and suffixes in the morphological structure and semantic interpretation of the extremely complex polysynthetic Adyghe verbal form. As we show, the relationships between the elements of the different parts of the verbal form are both non-trivial and heterogeneous, which suggests that affix interaction can be an important parameter of morphological complexity in languages.
The cases of interaction between prefixes and suffixes vary in three parameters: 1) the direction of restriction (from suffix to prefix or the other way around); 2) semantic relations between suffix and prefix; 3) range of restriction (suffix and prefix impossible without each other; possible, but with an idiomatic meaning, and so on).
Restrictions of the Adyghe type can be an important criterion for grammatical semantics and morphology, since they show which meanings and to which extent are conceptualized as close to each other by the language system.