Parietal alpha oscillations associated with working memory may reflect cognitive effort modulations
Behavioral Neuroscience is a relatively recent discipline which unifies different fields encompassing Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Science, Clinical Neurology, Neuroanatomy, and Neurophysiology.
Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary work written by the best experts in the field, addressing the relationship between the neurological and biological basis of behavior and models of cognition, spanning from perception to memory and covering phenomena that occur in human and other animals.
Published in 2010, it comprised 212 articles and was a unique and essential resource for students and professionals in several fields including neuroscience, psychology, neurology, psychiatry, and cognitive science. It was by far the most comprehensive reference work available addressing the advances in all the field of behavioral neuroscience. It does however, now need revising with the latest science.
The new edition will again cover the relationship between brain and behavior, both in humans and other animals, as well as mental and brain disorders. This new edition spans accross three volumes, 250 chapters and approximately 2000 pages. It will build on the foundations of the first edition by thoroughly updating all current articles with the latest research that has developed in the last decade. In addition, 40 brand new articles on the hottest topics within behavioral neuroscience will be added, covering areas such as advances in behavioral genetics and epigenetics, cognitive ageing, neuroepidemiology, social neuroscience, as well as the upsurge of new technologies like diffusion tensor imaging or transcranial direct current stimulation.
The result will be an all-encompassing one-stop interdisciplinary major reference work on how the brain and its disorders influence behavior, perfect for neuroscience students, clinicians and scientists interested in knowing more about behavior from a biological perspective.
The field of neuroscience has considerably expanded in the last decades. Researchers have used neuroscientific techniques to study a wide range of phenomena in entrepreneurship, business, economics, and marketing fields. The purpose of this chapter is to provide in a single source an outlook on the state-of-the-art techniques in cognitive neuroscience useful to address questions within business and economics realms. Here we particularly focus on two groups of highly insightful and non-invasive techniques: electrophysiologics (EEG, MEG, ECG, EMG, EOG, eye tracking, and electrodermal activity) and behavioral genetics (twins studies, family studies, adopted studies, psychoneuroendocrinology). The techniques can complement more commonly used methodologies (such as fMRI) to provide a holistic picture of the phenomena under study. We further highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each technique and conclude providing examples of potential research questions that can be answered using each instrument.
The concept of thought has always been central to understanding the nature of human thinking in psychological studies. However, the main question of what is thought still remains unanswered. The origins of the issue lie in the definition of the original unit of analysis, i.e. in the definition of what lies at the heart of image, belief, imagination, speech, consciousness, and thinking. Based on available studies, results of which were reflected in recent publications, it was argued that thought should be such an original unit of analysis. This article explores the concept of thought based on cognitive constructs and the neurophysiological correlates of mental activity. The present study is addressed to discuss issues dealing with the nature of thought, its content and structure, and the relationships between indicators of substantial thought and the neurobiological correlates of the process of thinking. Structurally thought is based on needs, emotions and intensions, and as such, thought defines the substantive essence of an image and also represents consciousness. Coherence of thoughts and consciousness, their integrity reflect the connectivity of things from the external world in their entirety. Thus, the ability to generate thoughts and build relationships within the stream of consciousness characterizes the human mind. It is shown that thought as a cognitive substance emerges from desires and experiences, as well as from conscious perception. Taken together, the described psychological and neurophysiological assumptions open up new horizons for research into human mental activity, thinking abilities and consciousness.
Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.
The functional role of high beta oscillations (20-35 Hz) during feedback processing has been suggested to reflect unexpected gains. Using a novel gambling task that separates gains and losses across blocks and directly compares reception of monetary rewards to a ‘no-reward/punishment’ condition with equal probability we aimed to further investigate the role of beta oscillations. When contrasting different feedback conditions across rewards, we found that a late low beta component (12-20 Hz) had increased in power during the omission of rewards relative to the reception of rewards, while no differences were observed during the loss domain. These findings may indicate that late low beta oscillations in the context of feedback processing may respond to omission of gains relative to other potential outcomes. We speculate that late low beta oscillations may operate as a learning mechanism that signals the brain to make future adequate decisions. Overall, our study provides new insights for the role of late low beta oscillations in reward processing.
The XVI international interdisciplinary Congress "Neuroscience for medicine and psychology" continues the cycle of scientific events (High Tatras, Slovakia, 2002 and 2003; Karadag, Crimea, Ukraine, 2002 and 2003; Hurghada, Egypt, 2004, Sudak, Crimea, Ukraine, 2004-2013, Sudak, Crimea, Russia, 2014-2019), which are dedicated to the multi-faceted study of the nervous system and the use of this knowledge in medical and psychological practice. The main goal of the forum is to unite the efforts of highly qualified and young specialists of the scientific community who study the nervous system from different points of view to preserve the biological and mental health of people in the modern world. As part of the Congress, the School "Achievements of interdisciplinary neuroscience in the XXI century" is held with lectures and reports by leading scientists. The following issues will be discussed at the sessions of the Congress sections: stress and neurosis, memory, learning, thinking and consciousness, neuronal mechanisms of cognitive processes, Neurotechnology and cognitive