Философская мысль средневековья и эпохи возрождения
In the next chapter of the textbook «Comparative Economics» is analyzed as a feudal society the highest and last stage of the traditional economy. Uncovered background, contents and origins of feudalism. communal character of the feudal corporations, social class structure of society. We investigate the monopoly of the ruling class on the ground and the identity of the direct producer, forms and types of feudal rent, shows the value and limitations of the guild system, particularly the development of merchant's and usurer's capital in the Middle Ages. Much attention is paid to the characterization of the mentality of the era of feudalism, medieval notions of wealth and labor, the type of Christian culture.
This article deals with the critical analysis St. Thomas' cosmological argument which was undertaken by an american theologian and analytical philosopher Alvin C. Plantinga. The ontologies of former and newer scholastics are compared in order to clarify logical and ontological assumptions of Plantinga's criticism.
In this paper the differences and the similarities of formation of legal traditions in the Medieval Europe are examined. The author analyzes the impact of these differences on the consequent development of legal mentality and legal identity in Russia and in the Western Europe.
"The Millennial Kingdom" is an outline of medieval christian culture, from the time of Fathers up to its apogee around 1300, the age of Dante. The author does not pretend to have described and analyzed all facets of spiritual life during this long period, he focuses on that ones, in which intellectuals, writers and painters left especially deep imprints. The reader will find here, together with great authors and masterpieces, little known and studied monuments in author's photographs, as well as texts translated from latin, old french and other late medieval vernacular languages. These quotations from the primary sources are allways accompanied by polemical reflections on several opinions and clichés, methodological positions and estimations about the Middle Ages, current among historians and in human sciences in XXth and XXIth centuries.