Влияние пандемии коронавируса на сферу культуры в России
Due to the threat of the spread of COVID-19 in accordance with Federal Law No. 68-FZ of December 21, 1994 "On protection of population and territories from natural and man-made emergencies" in the first quarter of 2020 a high alert regime was introduced in the subjects of the Russian Federation. In accordance with the Decrees of the President of Russia from March 30 till May 8, 2020 there were established days-off with preservation of the employees' wages. At the same time, back in March 2020 Rospotrebnadzor decided on the requirement to limit the holding of mass events, including those in the sphere of culture. These measures could not but affect the functioning of cultural organizations, since, in fact, their activity during this period, as well as the subsequent period of the gradual coming out of the self-isolation regime, was actually blocked.
In order to assess the economic consequences for the sphere of culture, the dynamics of the budget financing indicators was analyzed, the expenditures of households for recreation and cultural events were considered, as well as the changes in the structure of the number of employees of cultural organizations by forms of part-time employment were investigated.
In order to broaden our understanding of the ongoing situation directly within cultural institutions, a qualitative study was conducted a sociological survey of the heads of cultural institutions of various types, located in both large cities and small towns and in rural areas from all federal districts, which showed the range of opinions and assessments about the impact of the pandemic on their activities.
Based on the results of the study, proposals were made for the development of alternative options for the provision of services.
One of the first academic comparative studies of the educational impact of the pandemic, the book explains how the interruption of in person instruction and the variable efficacy of alternative forms of education caused learning loss and disengagement with learning, especially for disadvantaged students. Other direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic diminished the ability of families to support children and youth in their education. For students, as well as for teachers and school staff, these included the economic shocks experienced by families, in some cases leading to food insecurity and in many more causing stress and anxiety and impacting mental health. Opportunity to learn was also diminished by the shocks and trauma experienced by those with a close relative infected by the virus, and by the constrains on learning resulting from students having to learn at home, where the demands of schoolwork had to be negotiated with other family necessities, often sharing limited space. Furthermore, the prolonged stress caused by the uncertainty over the resolution of the pandemic and resulting from the knowledge that anyone could be infected and potentially lose their lives, created a traumatic context for many that undermined the necessary focus and dedication to schoolwork. These individual effects were reinforced by community effects, particularly for students and teachers living in communities where the multifaceted negative impacts resulting from the pandemic were pervasive.
The article systematizes the problems of the Russian public procurement system associated with the illegal actions of its participants. Despite the constant reform of the public procurement sector, it is still prone to fraud and corruption. Participants' dishonest behavior is especially evident in the crisis situation associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. After overcoming the consequences of the pandemic, the situation will be improved by strengthening public control by citizens and civil society institutions.
This timely volume documents the immediate, global impacts of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) on teaching and learning in higher education. Focusing on student and faculty experiences of online and distance education, the text provides reflections on novel initiatives, unexpected challenges, and lessons learned.
Responding to the urgent need to better understand online teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, this book investigates how the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) impacted students, faculty, and staff experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown. Chapters initially look at the challenges faced by universities and educators in their attempts to overcome the practical difficulties involved in developing effective online programming and pedagogy. The text then builds on these insights to highlight student experiences and consider issues of social connection and inequality. Finally, the volume looks forward to asking what lessons COVID-19 can offer for the future development of online and distance learning in higher education.
This engaging volume will benefit researchers, academics, and educators with an interest in online teaching and eLearning, curriculum design, and more, specifically those involved with the digitalization of higher education. The text will also support further discussion and reflection around pedagogical transformation, international teaching and learning, and educational policy more broadly.
Despite the increasing number of studies devoted to creative professionals, there are still many topics, which remain understudied. Among these topics there is interconnection of professional labor and cultural institutions of which labor conditions are framed. Furthermore, while much research has been devoted to the UK, other regions or global concerns have gained little attention. This article concerns creative professionals in post-Soviet Russia. It offers an overview of the field of cultural institutions in St. Petersburg in relation with the cultural administration and the professionals working for it. In particular, this study points out to the public sector in the Russian cultural production and new non-state institutions founded by young entrepreneurs and activists, which have constantly to struggle for recognition and support of the city’s administration. Based on fieldwork conducted in St. Petersburg in 2012-2014, the empirical study includes 26 in-depth interviews with cultural managers, employees of art-centers, lofts, creative spaces, museums, theatres. The research items here highlighted are concerned with the peculiarities of the institutional environment arisen in Russia as regards the creative labor in public and non-governmental cultural institutions. It is discussed whether the post-socialism system presents a ‘luckier’ medium for a ‘good’ creative job than that of advanced capitalism.
The paper discusses the existent controversial theory of marketing, related to cultural services. The study revealed that modern cultural services marketing theory was developed from borrowing social sciences concepts: sociology, organizational behavior, and economic anthropology. However, the study also found alternative concepts and ideas from social sciences that can better explain the phenomena of cultural services marketing. The study suggests adopting alternative approaches for conceptualization of cultural services marketing.
The pandemic COVID-19 created a special context for the organization of life, and the lockdown turned this context into a system of conditions that posed organizations with a difficult choice of the form of response to them. The meaningful field of choice affected the principles of corporate culture, which had to be re-approved or confirmed depending on the characteristics of a particular company. The proposed study shows that small businesses that did not give due importance to the formation of a sustainable corporate culture carried out a situational choice of principles of internal organizational interaction. Three types of organizational response to lockdown conditions related to corporate culture characteristics have been identified. An association was found between estimates of the characteristics of the company's organizational culture by employees before the pandemic began with the actions of the organization in relation to line workers during the lockdown period.
The article considers attempts to transform economic mechanisms of culture, which were made since the latest years of Soviet period. The main point of the transformations analyzed was to achieve a rational balance between the freedom of initiative of cultural goods producers and public control of their activities. Transformations were brought into action under three main directions: 1) economic empowerment of cultural organizations, including privatization of a part of state institutions; 2) implementation of normative principles of budgetary funding of state cultural institutions: 3) development of the alternative to state funding sources of cultural activities. In the article, the three stages of transformation are distinguished: the one dating back to before the collapse of the USSR, the second comprises the nineties years of the last century and the third includes the recent time. In this paper, it is shown that at each stage, in fact, the same objectives were set and the attempts to achieve them were unsuccessful leaving economic mechanisms of culture in their initial condition. In other words, there was a sort of “motion in a circle” instead of gradual development in the intended direction.
This chapter focuses on the important area of integration of the Greater Eurasia project: defense and security in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The chapter examines in detail the defense and security dimension of Greater Eurasia through the example of military cooperation between China and Russia as the main driver of Greater Eurasia. It is concluded that by 2016, an "average" level of military interaction had been achieved in Russian-Chinese relations, which opens up opportunities for further integration. However, given that relations between the two great powers are built on a solid foundation of national interests and sovereign equality, further military integration of Russia and China is being questioned. The pandemic, in the context of growing contradictions with official Washington, has intensified the more self-confident and assertive behavior of official Beijing in the foreign arena.