Computer models of verse prosody
This paper deals with the simulation of rhythmical structures in metrical verse in different languages. The study is based on a new computer system for analysis of verse prosody included probability models of versification intended for a hypothetical reconstruction of the verse generation. The models are created by using natural accent in the language based on the prose rhythm and the specific technique of versification. A correspondence or lack of correspondence between verse and the models provides information regarding the mechanism of versification and the language (prosaic) reserves for the poetic rhythm. This research devoted to the comparative study of verse prosody on the background of computational probability models presents the results of the analysis the early iambs in German, Russian and Ukrainian poetry and observes some differences and similarities in the versification mechanisms in these literary traditions.
The textbook contains the description of the phonetic system of the English language.
Purpose: This study investigated how listeners’ native language affects their weighting of acoustic cues (such as vowel quality, pitch, duration, and intensity) in the perception of contrastive word stress. Method: Native speakers (N = 45) of typologically diverse languages (English, Russian, and Mandarin) performed a stress identification task on nonce disyllabic words with fully crossed combinations of each of the 4 cues in both syllables. Results: The results revealed that although the vowel quality cue was the strongest cue for all groups of listeners, pitch was the second strongest cue for the English and the Mandarin listeners but was virtually disregarded by the Russian listeners. Duration and intensity cues were used by the Russian listeners to a significantly greater extent compared with the English and Mandarin participants. Compared with when cues were noncontrastive across syllables, cues were stronger when they were in the iambic contour than when they were in the trochaic contour. Conclusions: Although both English and Russian are stress languages and Mandarin is a tonal language, stress perception performance of the Mandarin listeners but not of the Russian listeners is more similar to that of the native English listeners, both in terms of weighting of the acoustic cues and the cues’ relative strength in different word positions. The findings suggest that tuning of second-language prosodic perceptions is not entirely predictable by prosodic similarities across languages.
This paper reports the results of a phonological study of stress in the Dargic branch of East Caucasian (Nakh–Daghestanian) languages. The main part of this issue is based on Xuduc, Qunqi, and Tanti (three Dargic varieties). Evidently in all Dargic languages, except the North varieties, stress is meaningful. Its position in the absolutive form depends on the word structure (in a different way in different varieties). In the other forms some of the morphological markers are usually stressed (e. g. all plural form markers) and some – are only stressed in words with a certain root declination type.
A lot of dictionaries of youth jargon (traditionally called youth slang) were published in Germany over the period from 2000 to 2013. They fall into three categories. The first group are annual editions of multilingual dictionaries by PONS and Langenscheidt publishers which give words and collocations used by schoolchildren from Germany, Austria and Switzerland their English, French and Spanish equivalents. These dictionaries, containing from 300 to 1500 words, focus on new entries and generally lack lexicographical information. It is native speakers, who contribute to the new editions by sending words and collocations to editors. These terms are included without any restrictions and this fact is mentioned in the preface to the dictionary. The second group are dictionaries ("Wörterbuch der Szenesprachen" and "Das neue Wörterbuch der Szenesprachen" from Duden publisher edited by P. Vipperman) organized by topic. They contain words referring to music, popular culture, love and sex, computers and Internet, entertainment and fashion etc. Each topic provides a specific vocabulary used by youth groups who share the same interests and have a similar lifestyle. These lexicographical sources feature thorough word definitions with detailed interpretation of jargonisms, normally in the context, but they do not give any information on grammar and language style, histories of words or verifiable reference. There is usually a website for a topical dictionary and anyone can participate in compiling it. The third group are lexicons by G. Eman who put them together after many years of close contact with young people of different age groups and social classes. Their strong points are complete definitions of entries. He also specifies stylistic register, polysemy, dialect, etymology, though sometimes his explanations lack system. All words and expressions are given in the context. G. Eman also provides synonymous sequences, arranged by topic which could be found in the appendix to "Endgale" dictionary. None of the reviewed dictionaries meets all standards for lexicographical reference. However, despite this shortcoming and diverse lexicographical aspects, dictionaries of German youth language published in the early 21st century are a valuable source for studying this layer of unconventional vocabulary and therefore youth subculture. It should be pointed out that German youth slang is not about specific words and expressions only, it reflects social relations, way of life and culture of young people from Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
The article examines the formation of monologue speech and the infl uence of linguistic laws of incorporation and contamination on this process. It contains analysis of the semantic structure of monologue carried out on the basis of key words and nuclear tones of theme centres and their prosodic depiction. The analysis was performed on spontaneous monologues. The results of the acoustic analysis and statistics data were obtained through the computer programme Speech Analyzer
While space-time metaphor is a source of regular prepositional and adverbial polysemy, in deixis, spatial words are generally not prone to evolving into temporal markers. However, Russian spatial proximity marker tut ‘here,’ which develops temporal proximity meanings, demonstrates a deviation from this tendency. Its meaning, though, is different from the meanings of classical deictic markers of temporal proximity, such as sejčas ‘now.’ Tut develops a synthetic meaning of actuality, which comprises the following semantic elements: (a) time period which includes the moment of speech, and such moments preceding and following it that are sufficiently close to the moment of speech to retain connection with it; (b) physical or mental space that includes the speaker; (c) a situation where the speaker is either a participant or an observer. Besides its special semantic properties, tut is characterized by communicative and prosodic peculiarities.
The book is a study of the academic public presentation and its prosodic aspect.
The article dealts with German school and student sociolects of the first half of the XXth century. The data under linguistic analysis are lexicographic sources and theoretical articles of leading German linguists of that time. The focus is on the dictionary of Basler Studentensprache pubished in 1910. There is carried out comparative analysis of the youth sociolect of the past and the present and there singled out general tendencies in enriching their vocabulary.