СПЕЦИФИКА ОЦЕНОЧНОЙ СЕМАНТИКИ НОВООБРАЗОВАНИЙ В ЗАГОЛОВКАХ ИНТЕРНЕТ-СМИ
Graduality of evaluative semnatics of media neologisms is analyzed
The article deals with linguistic and pragmatic features of the use of word-formative neologisms in the texts of modern Russian media. An analysis is presented of the specific features of word-formative neologisms created by the conventional methods (affixation, affixoidation, complex-suffixal method) and non-conventional methods (hybridization, substitutive word-formation, derivation according to a specific pattern, graphic derivation).
The volume comprises both chapters discussing various theoretical and typological issues concerning word formation and the descriptions of word formation in individual languages of Europe.
Continuing professional development and participation in lifelong learning are not only important, but necessary conditions of successful engineering career. The need for skill upgrade occurs due to the inadequate level of competence received by engineers during university studies, and due to the rapid technological development and socio-economic transformations. Successful participation in continuing education requires not only cognitive abilities, but also self-interest, awareness of the importance of advanced training. The data of the specialized survey (n=880) were analyzed to investigate the level of involvement of young Russian engineers (up to 40 years) in obtaining additional professional education, as well as the relevance of various formats of advanced training and the most common educational strategies. Data on engineers are supplemented with information about the perceptions of potential employers (90 organizations in the field of robotics). Most young engineers feel some skills shortage and the need for additional training. The employers’ opinion confirms the existence of discrepancies between the existing and required level of engineering competencies and the high importance of further training. However, the active participation in lifelong learning is currently common not for all Russian engineers: a third of them (32.7 %) have not received additional education in the past three years. Additional training aimed at obtaining managerial skills, as well as the format of internships are currently not widespread. Those engineers who already feel the lack of professional knowledge and consciously participate in advanced training, strive not only to upgrade their field-specific competencies, but also to improve their digital and language skills. Obtaining a doctorate degree as a tool for career advancement was considered by every fifth (21.7 %) young engineer; the interest in obtaining a degree decreases with aging.
The article deals with the sources of replenishing youth slang. There come to light general tendencies of extension of the body of youth slang vocabulary in German and Russian which include metaphorization, word-formation and borrowing. The Research is carried out on the material of the lexicographic sources of the XIX - XXI centuries.
The paper discusses 10 Old Frisian verbal constructions that can be considered noun-incorporated verbs. Nominal incorporation is wide-spread in Indo-European. In Germanic, nominal incorporation as applied to verbs is not productive as a word-formation tool, except for Frisian. S. Dyk, a linguist and an expert in Frisian, has carried out a comprehensive research on noun-incorporation in Modern Frisian (Dyk 1997). Some incorporated verbs are part of Middle Frisian texts. Yet, as the author states, no words following this word-formation pattern had been attested in Old Frisian. This paper present new data achieved within a PhD-thesis on compounding in Old Frisian (including all the attested lexis, which amounts to ca. 11,750 lemmas). The findings are 10 Old Frisian lexical constructions that might be treated as noun-incorporated (proto-)compounds due to a set of reasons. The arguments for considering these words to be noun-incorporated compounds are: (1) ‘terminological’ specification of their semantics; (2) proven evaluation of this word-formation pattern into a productive and frequent mechanism in Modern Frisian through Middle Frisian. The arguments against considering these words to be noun-incorporated compounds are: (3) no conjugational paradigm present in the actual contexts, i. e. the 10 words occur exclusively as substantivized infinitives and do not function as finite verbs yet; (4) the 10 words are not frequent in terms of being attested in various sources distinguished by chronological, spatial and genre-based criteria. Moreover, the paper discusses some limitations of the words’ possible interpretations, and their formal and semantic features are described. The 10 words are: bon-skelda ‘to impose a fine’, brond-skatta ‘to commit arson’, hēr-plokkia ‘to pull at someone’s hair’, holt-sāgia ‘to cut wood’, hreg-breka ‘to break someone’s back’, mes-lūka ‘to pull a knife’, rēd-slā ‘to give advice’, stēn-drega ‘to carry stones around the town (as a punishment)’, stēn-fēra ‘to move stones’, wax-drāia ‘to produce wax candles’. Semantically, most of the words refer to criminal, legal actions; two of them (‘to cut wood’ and ‘to produce wax candles’) are designations of highly frequent occupational actions. One of them, ‘to give advice’, is well-known for having cognates in other Germanic languages. These meanings might have been rendered through a noun-incorporating pattern for a reason: they denote some actions so frequent and collocational that they were bound to form ‘terminological’ items and develop into a productive ford-formation model.
The article is concerned with some approaches to definitions of blending as a word formation process, its morphological, semantic and functional characteristics based on the linquo-didactic principles of language awareness and consciousness, communicativeness – in terms of l2 learner concept, wherein an L2 learner has aptitudes for: interpreting foreign language activities, actualizing intellectual processes and integrating critical thinking skills. The findings have revealed linguists’ incomprehension of blending as a word formation process. However, an array of templates for creating blends (alongside analytical research approaches) pave the way to productive teacher-student collaborative work on developing critical awareness of new blends during morphological and semantic analyses by means of various methods: distributional, componential, descriptive, transformational. Such analytical work is aimed at delivering connotative meanings of morphemes; identifying notional transitions, the degree of recognizability, a range of combinability of blend components; delineating blend-word functioning in a particular context. Amid word formation activities, some blend formation differences should be highlighted: high-rate creativity; wordplay engagement; interplay between orthography and pronunciation; superficial similarity to other word formation processes, i.e. compounding, clipping, abbreviation, acronyms; euphony – as a key factor for the regulation of deleting or maintaining source words elements; unpredictability, marginality. Overall, blending qualifies as a multi-functional word formation process which can be used in a variety of language styles. Accordingly, to provide students with insights into the linguistic view on the world, English language teachers should give instruction aimed at developing the lexical competence and stimulating student interest in analyzing blends.