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Book chapter

Zemsky Educational Establishments: Development of the Database

The process of transformation, which began in the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX century, as one of the important social problems put forward the question of literacy. The problem of literacy in Russia intensified and became more prominent after the abolition of serfdom in 1861 when peasants were granted personal freedom and some civil rights. The elimination of illiteracy was one of the most important conditions for the further development of the country. The spread of literacy in the Russian Empire in the late XIX-early XX centuries was largely associated with the activities of local self-government bodies. For them one of the most important areas of work was public education. The well-known fact is that the local self-government reform was carried in 1864. In Russian, these local self-government bodies were called Zemstvo.