Die Befreiung 1943 – 1945 / Освобождение, 1943 – 1945 / Liberation, 1943 – 1945
The chapter is devoted to the liberation of Soviet territories and Europe from Nazi occupation in 1943-1945.
The article analyzes the changes that took place in the Soviet people’s sexual behavior during the Second World War, particularly in the Red Army. It mainly draws on personal documents – diaries, memoirs, correspondence, interviews, wartime folklore. Nearly 34 million men were drafted before and during the war. The male/female ratio on the front was inversely proportional to that of the rear: women were lacking on the front, and men were lacking in the rear. Nearly 500,000 women from various social layers were serving in the army, with motivations as diverse as patriotic conviction, hunger, or the need to find a fiancé. Even though they were subjected to sexual exploitation, mainly by officers, they were not always mere passive victims of their superiors’ passions. Several of them, particularly those belonging to the lowest social layers of society, found the opportunity to settle down and improve their conditions.The war brought about changes in the relationships between the sexes comparable to those of the sexual revolution of the 1960s in the West, but only on the surface. The changes that affected morality were due to various factors, mainly the upheaval of the war, which led to the destruction of the traditional way of life and generally admitted rules of conduct.
Based on extensive collection of interviews with Soviet, mostly - Ukrainian, - Jews born before the World War II, the essay examines the problem of religious observance and attitudes to it before and after the war concentrating on the circumcision, the first rite of passage, primal in Judaism and exceedingly dangerous during the Holocaust.
Oleg Budnitskii examines what informed members of the Soviet intelligentsia experienced in Germany from 1944 to 1946. Aside from some contemporaneous accounts, he mainly bases himself on memoirs. Most of these were published only after 1990, so they were no longer held to the triumphalist official line of the late-Soviet era. Accordingly, they could address ambigious and unpleasant experiences.
Relying on archives and other little known documents the author analyzes the problems in arranging the ration tickets supplies for various strata of population during World War II and shows the food rationing specifi cs as a part of the social policy of a nation at war.
Il Duce declared war against the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, right after Hitler officially notified Rome about the beginning of the Operation Barbarossa. Mussolini’s military department hastily began to form the Expeditionary Italian Corps in Russia (CSIR), which entered the Soviet territory 40 days later. The Italian combatants who survived after the defeat at Stalingrad and the Soviet captivity, left ample memoirs. However, the victims' of the occupation documentary evidence has not been published yet. Domestic archives allow to bridge the gap and show how the Italian military treated the Jewish population.
Strategy and Politics of the Italian Communist Partisan Groups
History of Soviet Jews in World War II: Histories; Representation, Documentation, and Interpretation.