Kovalevsky, Maksim (1851–1916)
Maksim Maksimovich Kovalevsky was one of the most respected and influential figures in sociology and the humanitarian and social sciences in Russia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Kovalevsky was president of the International Institute of Sociology in 1905. He developed a comparative historical approach to the study of social institutions' evolution, critically elaborating on the ideas of Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Émile Durkheim, and others. Kovalevsky examined the interdependence between various factors in concrete historical contexts – with many parallel influences and with possible contradictions. For instance, he considered the demographic factor in connection with economic growth. He also analyzed links between economics, political institutions, and political doctrines coevolving in society.