Формирование установок по отношению к здоровью у молодого поколения россиян
The results of empirical study of correlation of socio-cultural and personal characteristics with the attitudes to their own health among Russian (n - 103) and Chinese (n = 182) students are presented. There were cross-cultural differences: Chinese students have higher indices of social capital and long-term orientation while Russian students show autonomous motivation of behavior with respect to their health. Women's attitudes to their health in both samples were more positive then men's ones. Such indices of social capital as the level and radius of trust, significance of ethnic and civic identity are mated with positive attitudes towards health in both samples. Autonomous motivation of behavior is correlated with positive attitudes to health in Russian sample.
The main thesis of this chapter is that one of the basic criteria of any positive social and cultural change should be the promotion of people’s flourishing. This flourishing is comprised by the individuals’ potential to be creative, to have positive mental and physical health, to be happy, and to be successful. A fundamental condition of this state is people’s experience of autonomy, psychological freedom, and agency. The culture of horizontality, which is comprised of the values and practices of trust, respect, equality, tolerance and sharing, constitutes a fertile soil where human autonomy can grow and flourish. This culture is opposed by the culture of verticality, which is built around status and hierarchy, and is guided by values of obedience and sacrifice, and strivings for control, power, and dominance. Cultivating the culture of horizontality and exercising control over the culture of verticality is one of the directions of those culture changes, which aim toward promoting people’s flourishing. The authors provide comparisons of Canada and Russia, based on both international evaluative indices and original empirical data that support a general thesis about the role horizontality plays in promoting people’s autonomy and well-being. These data also support the thesis that the development of horizontal components in Russian culture is a promising way of implementing its culture change.
One of the central notions of the sociology of health is the notion of “attitude to health” that includes a system of values and motivatians that create a connection between an individual and the society. One’s attitude towards health is a socio-cultural phenomenon that represents a system of personal and selective connections between the individual and the various phenomena of the surrounding reality that favour or, on the contrary, threaten people’s health, and a certain evaluation given by the individual to his or her own physical and mental state. The main objective of the present research is to reveal the types of values that influence the attitude towards health among three generations of Russians. The respondents were young Russian people aged 18-25 (574 people), 293 people from the “X generation” (born between 1963 and 1984), and 184 people born between 1943 and 1963. The methodical instruments included: the «PVQ-R» method developed by Schwartz (Schwartz and others, 2012), the «Index of Attitude towards Health and Healthy Lifestyle» (Zakharenkov et al., 2013), the «Your Lifestyle» method (Lebedeva, Chirkov, 2007; Chirkov et al., 2003). Young people’s attitude towards health is more positive than the attitude shown by representatives of the other generations. The values of “Achievement” and “Self-direction: Thought” influences the emotional scale of values among the respondents belonging to the X and Y generations. The “Self-direction: Thought” value is universal for all generations. The “Conformity: Interpersonal” value of representatives of the X and Y generations lowers the social component of health, but the same value increases it among people of the oldest generation. Value of conformism drives the eagerness to encourage others to lead a healthy lifestyle among Russian people aged 55-74.