The Contribution of BRICS to the International Competition Policy Regime
In the modern world, competition policy is an important part of global governance. Coordination of efforts between different countries is not an easy task, because the distribution of gains and losses from anticompetitive conducts is uneven across the globe. We identify joint interests of BRICS to influence international competition policy regime and analyse the effects of domestic enforcement on global markets. Among the targets of competition enforcement with large effects on global markets are conducts of international property rights holders. BRICS authorities apply remedies in order to weaken intellectual property rights (IPR) protection, both under merger approval and infringement decisions on unilateral conducts.
Similarity of the rules on merger control in BRICS gives reason to believe that global governance in the form of a supranational advisory body with the right of legislative initiative is possible in this area. On the other hand, a review of existing legislation and the institutional structure of BRICS enforcement indicates that enforcement against anticompetitive conducts is unlikely to become the focus of coordinated action.
The picture of the post-crisis world is shaped by the paradigm shifts about the sustainability of national development as a globally integrated co-development and as a necessary condition for national security and defense. Each state faces the steep task of developing new effective foreign economic policy, replacing the former export-oriented and protectionist import-substituting strategies. Such policy changes primarily concern the BRICS countries, including Russia and its place/role in expanding international trade in intermediate goods and services. Simultaneously, Russia and the BRICS must develop new mechanisms of economic cooperation between themselves in the form of global value chains (GVCs).
On August 1, 2019, a meeting of the INION RAS Situation Analysis Group was held, dedicated to the prospects of the Russian chairmanship of the BRICS group in 2020. The part of the discussion in which the problems of state consistency, vulnerability and international status of the BRICS countries were brought to the attention of readers.
This book analyzes the state of global governance in the current geopolitical environment. It evaluates the main challenges and discusses potential opportunities for compromise in international cooperation. The book’s analysis is based on the universal criteria of global political stability and the UN framework of sustainable development. By examining various global problems, including global economic inequality, legal and political aspects of access to resources, international trade, and climate change, as well as the attendant global economic and political confrontations between key global actors, the book identifies a growing crisis and the pressing need to transform the current system of global governance. In turn, it discusses various instruments, measures and international regulation mechanisms that can foster international cooperation in order to overcome global problems.
Addressing a broad range of topics, e.g. the international environmental regime, global financial problems, issues in connection with the energy transition, and the role of BRICS countries in global governance, the book will appeal to scholars in international relations, economics and law, as well as policy-makers in government offices and international organizations
In recent years research collaboration of BRICS countries in a wide range of subject areas has become a high priority for STI policymakers (see Sokolov et al., 2017). Meanwhile, recent studies in this field confirm that the intensity of intraBRICS collaboration is quite low (see Khan, 2015; Finardi, 2015; Finardi and Buratti, 2016). Our study following the research of Shashnov and Kotsemir (2018) proposes an approach for detection of research areas with relatively low intensity of collaboration between BRICS countries. We also assess the potential for strengthening of intraBRICS collaboration in research areas with missed opportunities of cooperation between BRICS countries.
Existing research on global financial architecture typically focuses on downside corrections in the eventuality of a crisis or on the contribution of financial flows to aggregate economic growth. Such accounts are of limited relevance if the composition of financial flows and aggregate economic growth are heterogeneous. For example, the factors that attract foreign direct investment, foreign portfolio investment, foreign reserve investment and other foreign investments, and the mechanism through which they contribute to economic growth, are often varied. This chapter, by looking at the relationship between the components of financial flows and those of aggregate economic growth, aims to fill a longstanding gap in the literature. Our exposition focuses on two groups of countries, BRICS and the G7, that have notable contrasts across several attributes such as the aggregate growth rates, levels of incomes, patterns of financial flows and demography. The results offer some pertinent guidance for the future development of financial architecture and complementary growth imperatives within both the groups.
Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations: Technologies, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies addresses issues of water resources—including combined sewer system overflows—assessing effects on water quality standards and protecting surface and sub-surface potable water from the intrusion of saline water due to sea level rise. The book's chapters incorporate both policies and practical aspects and serve as baseline information for future adaption plans in BRICS nations. Users will find detailed important information that is ideal for policymakers, water management specialists, BRICS nation undergraduate or university students, teachers and researchers.
Brazil and Russia rank first and second globally by the amount of renewable freshwater resources. Despite the significant challenges to municipal water use and water quality for the population, even in the timespan of 30 years these countries will be most protected from water stress. At the same time, China and India - countries with vast water resources, meet growing water challenges being the first and second in terms of world population and the world’s first and third economy according to PPP with prospects for further growth. South Africa is the flagship of BRICS on the African continent - the water-deficient country that is mostly affected by the physical shortage of water resources. This article aims to systematize possible areas of deepening cooperation in BRICS through the water agenda. It seems necessary to firstly assess the significance of the water factor for the member-states, than to characterize the current level of dialogue and applied interaction on water issues in BRICS. Secondly, the article compares international approaches to the water problem and, based on this, in the third part, analyzes the possibilities of BRICS to develop cooperation through the water agenda. As a result, the article concludes that, despite the objective physical prerequisites for water dialogue in BRICS as a strategic direction for the development of an organization, the formats that have emerged today clearly consider water cooperation in a rather limited aspect. The article suggests that the perspectives associated with a comprehensive agenda must be built on nexus concepts like water-food-energy-climate-sustainability nexus etc. Virtual water and the exchange of water technologies, and the creation of common water-technology clusters deserve a special place on the agenda as well as specially designed programmes by the BRICS New Development Bank.
The report engages with one of the most crucial questions of our time, the public governance of the digital economy, in particular focusing on the new forms of competitive interaction in the era of digital capitalism. New questions emerge out of the transition from the old to the new economy, which require ‘outside of the box thinking’ in order to inform policymakers and help to broaden the current narratives. Competition authorities have recently engaged in significant preparatory work, often in partnership with academics, in order to reflect on the challenges set by the digital economy to modern competition law enforcement. There have been a number of insightful reports already published the last few months and more work in the making. None of these reports has nevertheless so far engaged with the rapidly developing digital economy of emerging and developing jurisdictions, and in particular the BRICS, which represent a third of the world economy and a significant part of the global digital economy.