Обучение чтению на иностранном языке как социальной практике: постановка проблемы
The article describes theoretical and methodological issues of the research and planning of social (social-economic) reforms. The object of the study is the social-economic reform. The subject of the research includes social practices and social mechanisms (aims of the change), the content of innovation changes (which can be observed in the field of the reform) and the resistance in relation to them, institutional preconditions of that resistance and some ways of overcoming it. The complex management approach of social-economic reforms was suggested in the course of theoretical analysis of the achievements in spheres of innovation theory, sociology, management, labour economics and institutional economics with the use of the systematic and comparative methods. In response to that approach is proposed the management model of social innovations of the state, organizations and institutional market subjects, including their functions, the content and the results of this process. The conditions of successful implementation of social-economic reforms are created on the ground of the marked stages.
While reading literacy in Russian 10-year-old schoolchildren was exceptionally high in the PIRLS assessment, reading literacy of 15-year-old students as measured by PISA stayed low. To elucidate this controversy, we developed the“Push–Pull”diagnostic method combining PIRLS and PISA approaches. This new tool compares reading literacy across at leastfive years of schooling. With Push–Pull, we assessed grades 4, 6 and 9 (3110 students) and demonstrated that two years of study in Russian middle school (grades 5 and 6) failed to pro-mote students' ability to comprehend informational texts, bringing modest improvement overfive years of schooling. By measuring and monitoring the dynamics of reading literacy, Push–Pull spots the dead ends of Russian educational approach to reading and comprehension of informational texts in 10–15-year-old readers.