Ф. Петтит о Канте как республиканце: свобода, правление и оспариваемость
The article reconstructs the understanding of Kant’s political theory from the standpoint of neo-republicanism of P. Pettit. Based on selected texts, the field of historical philosophical analysis is created, which allows to develop an understanding of the significance of Kant’s heritage for contemporary normative theory. The grounds are traced for Pettit’s distinction of the Italian-Atlantic and Franco-German types of republicanism. Kant’s texts are analyzed on three points: an understanding of the freedom, government and contestability of politics. It becomes possible to compare Pettit’s theses and relevant fragments of Kant’s works. As a result, the rejection of the idea of mixed constitution in favor of a representative sovereign and the narrowing of the possibilities of contesting politics are recognized as fundamental features of Kant’s Franco-German republicanism highlighted by Pettit. In addition, the analysis of the polemical thesis of R. Forst about the need to consider justice as a constitutive political category through the perspective of Kantian understanding of autonomous will is involved. A joint examination of the texts of Kant, Boden, Hobbes and Rousseau, on the one hand, and a comparison of Forst’s thesis with the concept of orthonomy of Pettit and Smith, on the other, are indicated as possible ways to further elaboration of the question of Kant’s significance for modern republicanism and political theory as a whole.