### Book chapter

## L-models and R-models for Lambek calculus enriched with additives and the multiplicative unit

Language and relational models, or L-models and R-models, are two natural classes of models for the Lambek calculus. Completeness w.r.t. L-models was proved by Pentus and completeness w.r.t. R-models by Andréka and Mikulás. It is well known that adding both additive conjunction and disjunction together yields incompleteness, because of the distributive law. The product-free Lambek calculus enriched with conjunction only, however, is complete w.r.t. L-models (Buszkowski) as well as R-models (Andréka and Mikulás). The situation with disjunction turns out to be the opposite: we prove that the product-free Lambek calculus enriched with disjunction only is incomplete w.r.t. L-models as well as R-models. If the empty premises are allowed, the product-free Lambek calculus enriched with conjunction only is still complete w.r.t. L-models but in which the empty word is allowed. Both versions are decidable (PSPACE-complete in fact). Adding the multiplicative unit to represent explicitly the empty word within the L-model paradigm changes the situation in a completely unexpected way. Namely, we prove undecidability for any L-sound extension of the Lambek calculus with conjunction and with the unit, whenever this extension includes certain L-sound rules for the multiplicative unit, to express the natural algebraic properties of the empty word. Moreover, we obtain undecidability for a small fragment with only one implication, conjunction, and the unit, obeying these natural rules. This proof proceeds by the encoding of two-counter Minsky machines.