Оформление английских королевских займов на антверпенской бирже в середине XVI в.: принципы документооборота и тенденции к унификации
Within this article the author analyses one episode from so-called “*Historia dialogada hasta 1288”, the anonymous Castilian chronic edited near the end of 13th or the first years of the 14th century. During the siege of an Andalusian town Niebla the troops of Alphonse X the Wise were attacked by a horde of the flies, that provoked the illness and rising mortality in the king’s camp. Two friars of St. Francis helped to the king, advising him to pay a certain quality of money for each jarful of the flies. Analysing this subject, the author makes three principal conclusions. First of all, he corrects the real dating of the text, placing it in the times of Fernando IV. Then, he affirms that the apparition in the chronic of the Franciscan friars was conditioned by the strong positions, which the Order of the poor friars had during the reigns of Sancho IV and Fernando IV. Finally, he assumes that this episode was included in the “*Historia dialogada” with the objective to represent the king as a good feudal seigneur, who takes into considerations the recommendations of his vassals, including the lesser ones. As an appendix to the article, we publish a transcription of the discussed episode of the chronic maid from the manuscript of Sevilla University library, and the translation of this text into Russian.
The subject of this article is the concept of power developed by the jurists of Alfonso the Wise in the Partidas. The main role of the king as the political and spiritual leader of his Kingdom is shown through a system of oppositions. The existing main distinction between the king and emperor is also seen in the alphonsine doctrine: the power of the former has a mystical character, while the second is based on purely rational grounds.
Often in the Middle Ages corpse of a dead ruler became centre of intesive ritual activity. One of its specific forms was plundering of the dead body or/and exhibiting it naked without any sort of insignia. The author disputes with explanations of this custom proposed in academaic publications of the last decades and demonstrates new cases, concerning secular rulers, mainly kings of England.