ВЗАИМОДЕЙСТВИЕ МАТЕРЕЙ - ОДИНОЧЕК С ДЕТЬМИ МЛАДШЕГО ШКОЛЬНОГО И ПОДРОСТКОВОГО ВОЗРАСТА
The paper deals with the problem of single motherhood from the point of view of subjective perception of this status, its connection with psychological well-being in other spheres of mother’s life, resources and the strategies of coping with this difficult life situation. The results of an analysis of semi-structured interviews with 5 women, who class themselves as single mothers, are presented. It is shown that the feeling of being a single mother is not so much related to the actual separation from the father of the child, and to the help from the environment, but mostly - to the inability to share responsibility for the life of the child with someone. The state of loneliness in motherhood is experienced mainly as a heavy one, feelings of excessive tension, overload, confusion, guilt prevail. This condition is experienced heavier by those women whose partners (their child’s fathers) made the decision to part with them. The current relationships with the child’s fathers, according to the women, have little effect on their sense of lonely motherhood, more important is the father’s participation in the life of the child. Recognizing the importance of psychological well-being in various spheres of life, the impact of mother’s satisfaction with mother’s life on child-parent relations, due to limited resources, women often sacrifice well-being in other areas for the sake of child-parent relations. Many women seek to find new resources to harmonize their lives and child-parent interaction, recourse to the specialists. The most common strategies for coping with the difficult life situation are flexibility, acceptance of restrictions, sensitivity to the individual characteristics of their children and their own. Single mothers attach great importance to the joint time with children, rituals, the balance of emotional intimacy and distance with an adolescent.
The paper uses econometric tools (two-part model, Tobit model, Heckman model) to evaluate factors associated with consumer choice on the Russian pharmaceutical market. Using data from national public opinion survey conducted in 2014 by Levada Center we show that gender, health, retirement and single mother’s status are strongly associated with high expenditures on medicine. Incomes are positively associated with probability of spending on medicine, but marginal effect of incomes is small.
In this chapter we aim to examine the discourses created and reproduced through the interaction between single mothers and representatives of social services. The analysis is based on twenty-six interviews with single mothers and six interviews with social workers conducted in 2001–2003, and six interviews with single mothers and three with social workers conducted in 2006 in the Saratov region in Russia, as well as official documents and the publications of other researchers. In our interviews with mothers, we focused on the issues of familial well-being and interactions with social services, while social workers were asked to discuss their experiences with clients. A short overview of statistics and social policy terminology prefaces a discussion of how mother-headed families and state social policy interrelate and affect each other. The subsequent sections contain analysis of the interviews with single mothers who, as the heads of low-income households, interact with the social service system. The analysis demonstrates that single mothers are frustrated by inadequate assistance and the impossibility of improving their life situations. The discussion goes on to show that social workers, who are used to interpreting complex issues in the life situations of single mothers as individual psychological peculiarities, tend to blame the victim, thus ignoring important social conditions and imposing on women a responsibility for problems that are societal in origin.