Social beliefs are notions about the nature of other people, their behavior, and the way one should respond to their actions. Social beliefs include beliefs in dangerous world (a view of society as chaotic, unpredictable, and aggressive) and jungle world (a view of other people as lying and manipulative agents trying to “win against” one). This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to check the structural validity of Russian versions of two scales by J. Duckitt, measuring beliefs in dangerous and jungle world. The participants were students of universities from Moscow and Kazan region, as well as employees of commercial organizations (N = 1938, mean age 20.2). The respondents completed a 12-item Russian version of dangerous world belief scale and a 20-item Russian version of jungle world belief scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to investigate the structure. For the dangerous world belief scale, a secondorder order factor model (with two first-order factors) for the full questionnaire showed the best fit. For the jungle world beliefs scale, a second-order factor model (also with two first-order factors) was developed for a subset of 12 items. The authors discuss the compatibility of social beliefs scales with Russian cultural context.
Focusing on Muslim populations in five Muslim-majority countries and four Western European countries, we examine the correlates of popular support for terrorist violence. In both samples, support for terrorism is stronger among those who see democracy as a Western political system that is not suitable for Muslim societies. Perceived Western economic dominance is related to more support for terrorism among Muslims in Western Europe. In the Muslim countries, blaming the West for negative international relations is associated with greater support for terrorism. The associations found are remarkably similar across the Western European countries but vary considerably across the Muslim countries, preventing generalized interpretations. Nevertheless, our findings indicate that perceptions about world politics represent an important factor of pro-terrorist views among Muslims. Therefore, we suggest that improvement of the relationships between the West and the Muslim world can reduce support for terrorism.