Добровольчество как объект многоуровневой оценки эффективности
The article presents a comparative analysis of the internal structure and principles of the organization of volunteer associations in Russia and France from the perspective of the sociology of organizations. The theoretical framework of the study combines the concepts of the neo-institutionalist approach in economic sociology and the network approach to organizations. Data are drawn from a series of in-depth expert interviews with the leaders of socially-oriented volunteer organizations in France and Russia (14 interviews). The author also conducted analysis of legal documents and communication materials of volunteer associations in each of the countries studied (approximately 40 documents totaling over 200 pages of text). It appears that the Russian and French volunteer sectors differ not only in structure and legal status of voluntary organizations, but also in the conceptual definition of volunteering. Drawing on empirical data, it was found that the French volunteer associations exist in a structured institutional environment, while Russian voluntary associations perform in a poorly structured, constantly changing environment, the main problem of which is the lack of cognitive and socio-political legitimacy. Thus, the French model of volunteering is more similar to the mechanism of institutional organizations, while Russian voluntary associations are more typical of networked organizations. This research suggests a different vision of the nature of voluntary organizations and argues that it is impossible to ignore national characteristics in the development of social policy. Conclusions drawn from this research could be applied to the development of public policy regarding the non-profit sector in Russia.
This book represents the 8th volume of results obtained from the monitoring of the status of civil society in Russia that is conducted by the Centre for Studies of Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector (the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”) in conjunction with the leading sociological centres of Russia. The empirical base of this publication is formed from the data of All-Russian survey of population aged 18 years and older, that was based on representative sample and carried out in 83 regions of Russia in 2259 localities within the framework of expert services on the strategy of socio-economic development of Russia till 2020. The data provided characterizes engagement of Russians in volunteering, charitable donations and other social and political practices. The data describes determinants of Russians connected with responsibility for actions taken in their neighborhoods and localities and the country at large and their sense of the opportunity to exert their influence over it. This book will be of use to social and political scientists, economists, teachers and students of the social sciences and anyone, interested in the development of civil society in Russia.
The article discusses the phenomena of charitable giving and philanthropy, demonstrates differences between formal and informal volunteering, pro bono activities. The author indicates cultural differences and economic significance of volunteering, then describes what the predictors and effects of giving and volunteering are. Debates around costs, effectiveness, and social impact of giving and volunteering are also highlighted in the article.