Понятие добровольчества в российской и зарубежной науке
The article presents a comparative analysis of the internal structure and principles of the organization of volunteer associations in Russia and France from the perspective of the sociology of organizations. The theoretical framework of the study combines the concepts of the neo-institutionalist approach in economic sociology and the network approach to organizations. Data are drawn from a series of in-depth expert interviews with the leaders of socially-oriented volunteer organizations in France and Russia (14 interviews). The author also conducted analysis of legal documents and communication materials of volunteer associations in each of the countries studied (approximately 40 documents totaling over 200 pages of text). It appears that the Russian and French volunteer sectors differ not only in structure and legal status of voluntary organizations, but also in the conceptual definition of volunteering. Drawing on empirical data, it was found that the French volunteer associations exist in a structured institutional environment, while Russian voluntary associations perform in a poorly structured, constantly changing environment, the main problem of which is the lack of cognitive and socio-political legitimacy. Thus, the French model of volunteering is more similar to the mechanism of institutional organizations, while Russian voluntary associations are more typical of networked organizations. This research suggests a different vision of the nature of voluntary organizations and argues that it is impossible to ignore national characteristics in the development of social policy. Conclusions drawn from this research could be applied to the development of public policy regarding the non-profit sector in Russia.
There was described the forms of the existence and terms of dissemination of social innovations in volunteer activities.
dance4life is a globally active organization within the fields of HIV, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the Millennium Development Goals, specifically aiming to establish a social youth movement consisting of 1 million agents4change by 2014. The central mission of dance4life is to power a movement that creates change at global and community level by taking action to improve young people’s SRHR, and in particular, improving access to sexuality education and youth-friendly services, and to challenge stigma and discrimination and break down taboos that surround sexuality, especially focusing on HIV and AIDS. KIT was invited to partner with dance4life on an impact assessment of dance4life’s work, with a focus on mixed methods and the involvement of the young people themselves. The assessment took place in two countries: Uganda and Russia. A pilot study was undertaken in the Netherlands to test the qualitative research instruments.
This book represents the 8th volume of results obtained from the monitoring of the status of civil society in Russia that is conducted by the Centre for Studies of Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector (the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”) in conjunction with the leading sociological centres of Russia. The empirical base of this publication is formed from the data of All-Russian survey of population aged 18 years and older, that was based on representative sample and carried out in 83 regions of Russia in 2259 localities within the framework of expert services on the strategy of socio-economic development of Russia till 2020. The data provided characterizes engagement of Russians in volunteering, charitable donations and other social and political practices. The data describes determinants of Russians connected with responsibility for actions taken in their neighborhoods and localities and the country at large and their sense of the opportunity to exert their influence over it. This book will be of use to social and political scientists, economists, teachers and students of the social sciences and anyone, interested in the development of civil society in Russia.
S-Theory as a Comprehensive Explanation of Charitable Giving: Testing a Theory of Everyone on Russian National Sample Interview Data
Attraction and management of money (donations and earned), people, plant, technology, and reputation as resources are keys for nonprofit organizations (NPOs), including membership associations (MAs). This chapter reviews resource attraction from a marketing theory perspective. While traditional transaction marketing is often dominant, we argue that relationships and relationship marketing are at the heart of association resource attraction processes, considering what the association can produce or provide and member-beneficiary capacities. Resource attraction and maintenance are challenging, given competition for resources among associations. Engaging various relational stakeholders is key to success. Most attention is given to paid-staff associations, but we also discuss all-volunteer associations. While larger associations are likely to concentrate on financial resource attraction, smaller ones tend to build more successfully on volunteer members as their key resources.