Переосмысление сакральных образов в современном искусстве Индии
The author concentrates on monuments of culture connected with the musical iconology, defines its borders and special features which enable to use it for the analysis of the Indian religious art, mainly sculptures of the cave temples of Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism of the Early Medieval period, located in the State Macharashtra
The article is devoted to images of dwarfish beings adorning Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism temples of ancient and medieval India. Their weird poses that are at times funny, but sometimes quite inappropriate, raise the question about their meaning and functions in the sacral space of a temple. The author attempts to interpret the images of the dwarfs from diverse points of view based on literary sources of various nature: myths and fiction, as well as doctrinal and technical texts.
The cult of Our Lady received a wide circulation in India. The transformation of her image occurs as a visual embodiment - in sculpture and painting, copying European models, but rather its perception is very different from other cultures. Our Lady, as she is called here, like other countries, is not just the mother of God, but the goddess, with the result that religious scholars talk about «Maryam bhakti». In India develops vernacular iconography of Mary, and the most popular is Our Lady of Good Health (Our Lady of Good Health) and Our Lady Velanganni, her main temple is located in Tamil Nadu, and replicas - all over India and abroad. The article reviews the reasons for the popularity of the cult of the Virgin Mary in India, especially his understanding and perception that influenced the transformation of the image.
Сборник посвящен формированию и бытованию своеобразных визуальных и аудиовизуальных «брендов», прочно связываемых в массовом сознании с опреде- ленными восточными странами и культурами и используемых на бытовом уровне для их «распознавания». В статьях рассматривается происхождение подобных сим- волов, аргументируются правомерность, возможность и механизм их использова- ния в качестве «визитных карточек» избранного регионального материала, выяс- няется характерность памятников для «олицетворяемой» ими восточной культуры.
Numerous heavenly musicians inhabit inner and outer walls, pillars and even ceilings of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples of ancient and medieval India, being depicted in sculpture and painting. They are gandharvas, apsaras and kinnaras. They attend deities, present them gifts, dance, play musical instruments, sing hymns. The depictions of musicians appeared first in Harappa civilization in 2000 B. C., and then only in the early Buddhist art from II B. C., flourished in Sanchi sculpture and then multiplied in early medieval time. In this work author makes much use of images from the cave complexes of Ajanta, Aurangabad and Ellora (Central India, Deccan, V–X A. D.) This article raises a question not only of heavenly musicians' iconography, but also of their function in a sacral space of this period. Author interprets these images with the help of literary sources: Vedic, Epic and Puranic literature, Buddhist Jatakas and Jain texts.
Images of dwarfish beings inhabit the ancient Indian temples in great abundance. One has only look carefully to start notice them everywhere: in mythological scenes and decorative friezes, in prabhamandalaaround the object of veneration and as bhadrakaras- original atlantes, supporting architectural elements; on walls, pillars and ceilings, in interiors and on facades of temples. This pan-Indian images – common in iconographic program of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, the three major religions of ancient India. Dispite of similar appearance, figures of dwarfs may be interpretate in a completely different ways - as different characters. The meaning of them depends on the location in the iconographic program, their attributes, weapons, posture, gestures and encirclement. They are demonic creatures and guardians, fearful and worshipful in the same time, cajole them, and they are addressed to specific requests concerning different needs, well-being, the harvest, as well as the revelation of the progeny. However, only one value is determined by the iconography of temple dwarfs images, their semantics is much more complicated, as the religious images, tend to invest more than one meaning and can be read by them on many levels, corresponding to different research perspectives. Figure of dwarf in Indian art has developed from displaying ancient yakshas, autochthonous chthonic cult, prior to the submission of creatures of esoteric tantric teachings. They play a minor but important role in the ancient Indian religious iconography.