СЕМЬДЕСЯТ ЛЕТ ЮЖНОКОРЕЙСКОГО ИСКУССТВА: ВОПРОС САМОБЫТНОСТИ
This article is to show how for the last 70 years South Korean artists have been dealing with the question of cultural originality and identity. We discuss the main artistic movements, the form and meaning of the typical art works. In the XX century Korean art was developing under the European influence. That is why the task to go beyond imitation and show Korean cultural identity became one of the main issues. In the arti cle we discuss how artists of different generations and movements dealt with the issue. We show that some artists looked for inspiration in Korean traditional art and aesthetics. Others tried to combine global and personal and didn't try to express koreanness in their art.
Metal jewellery votives discovered at the “barbarian” mountain sanctuary of Eklizi-Burun (Crimea) are dated from the 1st to the 3rd centuries AD. Most of these items belong to the female costume known from funerary contexts of Central Crimea, which differ by their localization (Foothills and the Southern seashore), as well as by the peculiarities of burial rite (“inhumation’ vs. “cremation). A small part of the jewellery is characteristic only for the cemeteries on the Southern shore containing burials with the remains of cremation.
An analysis of the cultural niches, in which the jewellery items deposited in the sanctuary of Eklizi-Burun of Roman times were produced and used, suggests that its adherents came from the societies that lived on the Southern macro-slope of the Main ridge of the Crimean mountains and practiced cremation of the dead. Apparently, these people got in the Greco-Roman narrative tradition and local epigraphic documents of the Roman period as “Tauri”, “Scythian-Tauri”, and “Tauro-Scythians” inhabiting “Taurica”. Presumably, they appeared in the Mountain Crimea in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC (migrating from the areas of LaTénoid archaeological cultures?) and maintained their cultural identity until the beginning of the 5th century AD.
Our society is looking for alternative ways of identity construction besides of the consolidation of memory around military achievements. We assumed that sport and history is perspective symbolic union; and we addressed the following issue to representation of history in sport feature films. The research states that the sport film might be an alternative way of screening the past alongside with political history and wars, “the military past” (the most replicated image of the country in popular cinema segment). Thus, the study aims to identify the links between such areas as films, sports, and history, to analyze and describe the image of the past, narrative and semiotic structure of contemporary historical film.
The identity discourse has a tragic history in Europe (both inside frontiers and outside our own geographic space). The first part of this reflection will try to present an overview about some of the most important literary, political and philosophical theories of this concept which is particularly connected to the understanding of the Other in Contemporary Europe. In a second part we will aim to discuss the importance, the need and the utility of such a concept in our multicultural Europe that has ambiguous and contradictory discourses about its own cultural identity/ies. We also will try to compare European Contemporary European perspectives on this issue with other ways of understanding identity in other continents as Africa, America or Asia, in order to develop and bring more complexity, ductility and also theoretical and practical deepness to this concept. Finally we underline the main contributions of the essays that compose this book, each one contributing to draw a complex, wider and deeper picture of the possibilities that the concept, theory and history of identity may raise in different European cultural, historical and geographical contexts.
Cultures are never static. Cultures change and evolve in response to a number of factors and in a bidirectional way they also change individuals even as individuals change cultures as a consequence of globalization, rapid urbanization and industrialization in many countries and settings. Some of the cultural characteristics and inherent traits in individuals are more pronetochangesthanothers.Theimpactofoneculture on another depends upon a number of factors, such as the purpose of such contact degree and the duration of this contact. If one culture invades another for political and economic reasons, the outcome is likely to be different and may lead to deculturation than if the contact is through media at a distance where changes may be slow rather than sudden. Berry, in this chapter, deﬁnes acculturation as a process of cultural and psychological change in cultural groups, families and individuals following intercultural contact. Cultural identity refers to the ways in which individuals establish and maintain connections with, and a sense of belonging to, various groups. Embedded within cultural identity are microidentities of the individual such as gender, religion, sexual orientation etc. some of which can be hidden and others are obvious. The processes and outcomes of these processes are highly variable, with large group and individual diﬀerences. This chapter focuses on describingsomeoftheseprocesses,thestrategiespeople use to deal with them, and the adaptations that result. Three questions are raised: how do individuals and groups seek to acculturate? How well do they succeed? Are there any relationships between how they go about acculturation and their psychological and sociocultural success? Berry notes that the commonest strategy is integration (deﬁned as preferring to maintain one’s cultural heritage while seeking to participate in the life of the larger society), rather than assimilation, separation or marginalization which is likely to be most adaptive.
Данная книга – попытка восполнить пробел в отсутствии русскоязычных источников, рассказывающих о современном искусстве Южной Кореи. Корейское искусство существует в пространстве далекого от нас арт-рынка и питается чужими для нас идеями и информационной средой. Такое искусство зачастую апеллирует к понятиям и образам, присущим его локальной специфике. Пространство культуры предстает как единое целое, частью которого является и современное искусство, включающее в себя не только художественные, но и кураторские практики. Рассматривая проблемы взаимодействия в рамках репрезентации одной культуры в другой, неизбежно сталкиваешься с обобщением представляемого публике явления. Так, современное искусство Кореи известно российскому зрителю только в общих чертах и было представлено в России лишь на нескольких выставках. Книга написана для ознакомления российского зрителя с корейским современным искусством и дает краткий обзор развития и становлении корейского современного искусства, его главных на сегодняшний момент участников и институций, представляющих арт-сцену Южной Кореи.
This paper examines the similarities and differences between the relationships of ‘own’ cultural and ‘other’ cultural identities on the one hand and acculturation strategies of integration and assimilation on another hand among representatives of three generations of Russians and Ossetians, living in RNO-A. The sample included 109 grandparent-parent-adolescent triads from ethnic Russian families and 106 triads from ethnic Ossetian families (N=645). In the Russian sample we found the negative impact of ‘own’ cultural identity (Russian) on the assimilation strategy and a positive impact of ‘other’ cultural identity (Caucasian) on the integration strategy in all three generations. Among Ossetians we did not reveal any clear influence of their ‘own’ cultural identity (Ossetian) on acculturation expectations in all three generations. ‘Other’ cultural identity (Russian) of Ossetian grandparents and adolescents positively influences the acculturation expectation ‘multiculturalism’. In adolescents sample (unlike grandparents and parents) this identity also has a positive impact on the acculturation expectation ‘melting pot’. ‘Own’ cultural identity of Ossetian parents and adolescents positively influences the acculturation expectation ‘multiculturalism’. For Ossetian parents (unlike for grandparents and adolescents) their ‘own’ cultural identity negatively affects the acculturation expectation ’melting pot’. In both ethnic groups ‘own’ cultural identities promote maintainance of ‘own’ culture, and ‘other’ cultural identities help to adopt successfully in multicultural society. These results require additional verification in studies with other samples.