Energy and natural resources
Minerals and raw materials today play, have historically played and will continue to play in the foreseeable future, a huge role in the economy of Russia. They will also continue to structure Russian society and influence political and policy decisions on many social and economic problems, and indeed shape the country’s overall system of public administration. The central role of energy and raw materials is explained not only by their exceptional size and concentration within the geographical boundaries of a single country—oil and gas, gold, platinum, polymetallic ores, diamonds and rare earth elements—but also by the history of Russian state formation, which evolved in parallel with the exploration of new sources of raw materials in increasingly distant territories.
The article deals with the main trends in the output (production) of energy sources and energy in Siberia both within the boundaries of the Siberian Federal District and within the vast territory between the Urals and the Far East. According to the authors, Siberia in the foreseeable future (for a period of up to 50 years) has stable prospects to maintain its position as a leading macroregion producer and supplier of energy, both electric and primary energy sources such as oil, gas, coal. At the same time, ensuring the sustainable operation of energy resources and electricity development and production is increasingly associated with the development of science, development of new technologies at all stages from searching and exploration to production and distribution. Among the main reasons one can name qualitative change in production technologies (output) (among them – «smart» network, hydrofracturing, liquefaction of gas, environmental requirements and related changes), and the characteristics of energy sources and energy production. According to the authors, these changes in a new way raise issues of connection with science – not only the creation of technologies, but also the inclusion of research activities in the main production cycle (it is impossible to develop universal solutions that meet the expanding range of conditions and requirements). In turn, these changes in a new way raise the issues of interaction of economic agents in the production (output) of energy and energy sources and its distribution. Changing such interactions involves a more thorough and precise adjustment of the institutional environment (rules, regulations and organizations associated with them). The trends mentioned in the article form the basis for the developed plan of Siberian branch of RAS strategic development in the context of support of Siberian socio-economic development.
This study aims to assess future prospects for Russian energy exports until 2040, as global energy markets are undergoing major changes, with possible impacts on Russia.
Qualitative and quantitative approaches are integrated under a proposed foresight framework. The qualitative method involves an expert survey aimed at identifying major energy trends and their influence on Russia. As the trends are validated, an algorithm is proposed to assess the contribution of separate trends to Russian energy exports.
Experimental quantitative scenarios are conducted to assess the prospects for Russian energy exports until 2040 under the given exogenous scenario calculations of the IEA. Factor analysis allows for an assessment of the contribution of separate factors in dynamics of net energy imports into the regional economies. The future prospects for fossil fuels’ exports on regional markets are considered. Priority markets for Russian energy exporters are identified.
The results of the paper may be used by decision-makers for adjustments in the system of government policy or corporate strategy.
The paper provides an algorithm to assess energy export flows to macroregions based upon the synthesis of quantitative and qualitative information. Experimental scenario calculations of the Russian fossil fuels’ exports are provided. Strategic decision-making map is elaborated.
With limited energy resources and increased costs for their extraction, to meet the growing demand, it is necessary to search for sources of supply growth and to analyze various approaches to the development of energy. World energy leaders pay great attention to traditional sources, but also show interest in renewable energy technologies (renewables). The reason for this interest is not only the depletion of old ones and the absence of new large deposits. This is dictated by environmental requirements, the need to diversify energy supply sources, energy security policy and the formation of strategic reserves, as well as companies' readiness for modern trends in energy and the development of new technological solutions. The development of renewables is becoming a factor of competition for technological leadership. According to the draft of the energy strategy of Russia until 2035 (ES-2035), the technologies of the "energy revolution" include renewables and energy storage. It is projected that the generation of energy using renewables, equal to 1% of the country's total energy generation, will be achieved by 2020, and this conflicts with declarations of the importance of renewables.
Russian oil and gas companies are represented in corporate strategies as energy, which should mean increased attention not only to the hydrocarbon production sector, but also the development of other energy sectors, including renewable energy sources. Modern development strategies and programs sparingly reflect measures to develop alternative energy sources. This is due to the fact that the efficiency of the proposed green technologies is still low and for Russian conditions, the generation of energy by traditional methods is more effective than renewables: no additional resources, special efforts and innovations, and creativity of managerial decisions are required.
Russian companies, unlike the Western ones, invest little in the development of "green" energy at the industrial scale. Among the renewable assets, for example, BP has the largest biogas station in Brazil, 16 onshore wind farms in the US, and solar power plants in Germany and the United States. In the long term, the lack of such a direction of investment can mean the loss of technological prospects by Russian energy companies and even the withdrawal from the position of world energy leaders.
To ensure the share of renewable energy in the energy balance in accordance with the project ES-2035 (more than 3% of the total power generation by 2035), it is necessary to invest at least $ 1.7 billion annually. Achieving 3% by 2035 will only bring Russia closer to the indicators already achieved by developed economies.
The development of public-private partnerships, other instruments of state support, the acceleration of technological progress will narrow the gap in technological development, reduce the likelihood of Russian companies losing their share in the world energy market and the risk of occupying their place by those who are already actively investing in the development of clean energy.
The book provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent and advanced research findings on energy production and management in the important Ural industrial region of Russia. The authors consider economic problems of energy development, management systems for sustainable energy, and investment mechanisms for energy. Comprised of chapters on energy efficient technologies, environmental aspects of using energy, and personnel for the power industry, the volume is ideal for a range of scientists and engineers interested in innovative approaches to generation and distribution of energy.
This book is a comprehensive economic and legal study of the theoretical and practical aspects of the problems of increasing energy efficiency; self-motivation of energy saving by business entities within the framework of their corporate responsibility; regulatory mechanisms to stimulate energy conservation in the economy; civil-law regulation of foreign trade turnover of energy resources between economic entities of the Russian Federation and companies of member states of international integration associations – the CIS, EEMP, the EU and BRICS. It argues that technological energy saving plays a key role in reducing the energy intensity and increasing the energy efficiency of the economy, and substantiates the need for institutional support – including legal support for the participation of the Russian Federation – in various forms of international cooperation. Lastly, based on an analysis of current legislation, programs and recommendations, judicial and contractual practices, customs and trade procedures, it offers proposals for the developing, improving and unifying civil law regulation of obligations in the sphere of international trade in energy resources, as well as methodological recommendations for drafting foreign trade contracts in the energy sector.
In the last decade Russia has searched for new alternative policies to compensate for its political deficiencies and to balance its rivals in one of the key areas of the approaching geopolitical rivalry, the sea. The Russian assertiveness seen in the Black Sea-Mediterranean basin has recently been a real concern for the international community. In the six chapters of this book, contributors explain Moscow’s newly perceived assertive foreign and security behavior in the Black Sea and Mediterranean basin from their own perspectives, and reach a conclusion about the limits and validity of this new Russian ascendance in the region.