Collateral Determinants in Bank Loans: The Conductor of Credit Risks' Polyphony
Problem of assessing the credit risk, including the simultaneous analysis of the bond and credit default swap markets is relevant especially in connection with the recent crisis. Informational efficiency of two markets is different, so it is quite important to determine which market leads the other, and which only adjusts to the changes. This article analyzes the existing models to detect the market going ahead in terms of price discovery. The recommendations regarding the applicability of models for credit risk estimation are suggesting.
The study reveals collateral requirements, throughout LTV ratio, within credit risk's controlling. The new approach to identify LTV deviations from its median on the group level as a reference point - alarm indicator is presented. This indicator serves to alarm banks to incorporate particular borrower to the so-called Watch list. These alarm indicators should be arranged only based on the empirical interlinkage of collateral and credit risk. Portfolio of bank corporate loans, issued from 2006 to 2017 on the Russian market, performs as research input data.
This paper examines what influences Russian households‟ decisions to save and borrow. We use the 2008 data from the 17th round of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE). Our results show that the determinants of saving and borrowing are not only those suggested by economic theory but also include psychological and sociological considerations: smarter respondents, who are satisfied with their lives and inclined to help other people, are more likely to save. Those who enjoy stable or improving financial conditions and/or are satisfied with them are more likely to save and less likely to borrow. Financial literacy, a factor cited by institutional theory as positive for both saving and borrowing from banks, lost its significance at the onset of the financial crisis. Household income, suggested by economic theory as a basis for choosing a financial strategy, was found to have much less influence on savings and to have a positive influence on borrowing, confirming the rationing theory rather than intertemporal choice theory. Surprisingly, the fear of job loss does not make people save more, contrary to the precautionary motive.