Разрешение неоднозначности сфер действия в письменных текстах (на материале английского языка)
This article presents a study of the regulatory role of emotional intelligence in decision-making in real-life situations and of the functioning of intellectual and personal potential using Emotional Anticipation Method (EAM). Expert psychologists used quality analysis techniques to develop a typology of the content characteristics of choices on a sample of military instructors (N = 79). It is important to note that our selective sample included professionals involved in actual professional activity, who are well aware of the consequences of using or ignoring emotional information in their professional activity. Characteristics of emotional intelligence (EI) and tolerance to ambiguity in the system of predictors of personal choice were considered. The hypothesis of discrepancy between the data obtained using objective measurements and EI questionnaires was confirmed. The results show difference between dispositional and situational con- texts of inclusion of EI in the regulation of choices. For each task, we obtained proofs that subjects non-randomly selected one of the proposed alternatives and their choice was the closest to their personal solution. This allows us to consider alternatives designed as having high ecological validity. It was found that in the final answer, the use of illustrative tips led to an increase in the number of choices that minimise uncertainty in a given emotional context. Emotional intelligence serves as a prerequisite for effective use of illustrative tips. EAM procedure can be regarded as an indirect diagnostic tool for evaluation of certain aspects of emotional intelligence.
The paper considers the less known aspects in the functioning of Russian lexical “xeno” markers, in particular, of the particle jakoby ‘allegedly, ostensibly’. Traditionally described as expressing the falsity of a proposition contained in somebody’s utterance, in conjunction with a negative assessment of the utterer as aware of its falsity, jakoby displays very different usages in the language of contemporary mass media. Namely, it is frequently used as a mere marker of evidentiality, without an obligatory assessment of the proposition as false or of its source as untruthful. In fact, it can even be used to refer to statements that are treated as true within the very same text, only to indicate that the source of this information is not the writer herself but somebody else (e.g., a different news agency), in what might be termed as “safety” strategy. Besides, jakoby in its mass media usages demonstrates unusual syntactic behaviors, namely shifts in scope, where it is placed before the speech verb rather than before the challenged proposition: jakoby utverzhdat’, chto P ‘jakoby claim that P’ instead of utverzhdat’, chto jakoby P ‘claim that jakoby P’. However, the study of the Russian-English parallel corpus reveals that these usages are not as unusual as they may appear. In Russian translations of English texts jakoby sometimes functions as a translation of the English supposedly, allegedly, ostensibly or other (e.g., verbal) markers of uncertainty, but more frequently occurs with no apparent stimulus in the source, merely to mark indirect quotation. It appears therefore that there is a certain need in the Russian language for a neutral evidentiality marker. It is occasionally filled with jakoby, which in this case displays a tendency for grammaticalization: it expresses that the source of information is other than the speaker herself (but contains no other semantic components), and takes syntactic scope over the speech verb instead of the proposition it challenges.
In the article the author looks into the theoretical prospects of socialist utopia rebirth as the so called horizon line that is impossible to cross, but easy to see as if it were reachable. The author shows that post-Fordism capitalizing and alienating nonmaterial labor has become a real problem for the radical negation in the framework of neo-Marxist utopia since under such conditions any social alternative is in danger of becoming a part of the capitalist reality. Such disciplinary power of the modern capitalist logic generates rejection of the political action as it is rather than a protest. In this situation radical Marxist utopia comes down to the affective negation that cannot become a subject to reflection. Its creators and proponents do not want to find themselves in the capitalist present, aspiring in their expectations into the future that will not grow out of the modern capitalism and will never be capitalism in principle.
Manually annotated corpora are very important and very expensive resources: the annotation process requires a lot of time and skills. In Open- Corpora project we are trying to involve into annotation works native speakers with no special linguistic knowledge. In this paper we describe the way we organize our processes in order to maintain high quality of annotation and report on our preliminary results.
This work shows that being must originally be understood as implication. We begin with what Heidegger calls Hegel’s ‘new concept of being’ in the Phenomenology of Spirit: time as history is the essence of being. This concept however, is not univocal—for supersession means destroying-preserving. Hegel shows himself to be the thinker of truth as essentially ambiguous; and the Phenomenology is onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, the history of the being and unity, time and aspect, of the concept’s ambiguity. For Heidegger however, conceptual ambiguity confirms that Hegel’s history of being is stuck in a vulgar interpretation of time; and the Phenomenology can explain neither the origin of this time, nor the necessity of negation for the historical determination of being—for Hegel cannot think the ground of the concept of being, that is, the grounding of the ground. If Heidegger argues however, that the Phenomenology is predetermined by its ancient point of departure, we must go back to the Greeks, back to Aristotle’s original insight (overlooked by the entire history of philosophy as metaphysics): being and unity imply one another—for they are essentially implications. Thus the question of the meaning of being becomes the question of the meaning of implication.
Quantifiers, Quantifiers, and Quantifiers: Themes in Logic, Metaphysics, and Language
The paper discusses two markers of negation in Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian). It is argued that their distribution has functional rather than formal motivation.