Отрицательная и положительная поляризация: семантические источники
Negative and positive polarity items (NPIs and PPIs) are one of the well-explored topics in formal semantics and typology. However, the phenomenon of polarization is only addressed on a very limited linguistic material, such as indefinite pronouns (some vs. any), temporal adverbs (yet vs. already), certain idioms (not to lift one’s finger), expressions of attitude (would rather, unfortunately). The main focus of polarity research are licensing contexts, or contexts that allow to use NPIs or PPIs, respectively. The current paper introduces considerable new body of NPIs and PPIs, explores semantic underpinnings of polarization, demonstrates that polarization is an allpervasive property of language and shows that it is a scalar feature. The paper provides evidence for the fact that polarization is a regular phenomenon in polysemy, especially in verbs, where it characterizes single senses of polysemous words rather than words as a whole. It further establishes semantic connections between the phenomena of negative and positive polarization. The degree of polarization depends on semantic structure: the more “weighty” is the modal frame, the more polarized an item is.