Vom „akademischen Altersheim“ zur Spitzenforschungsanstalt? Mobilität der Wiener Professoren 1848–1918
Development of the economy through using the introduction of new technologies stimulates the transfer of competencies through the expansion of exports of educational services in various professional sectors. The study of current skills and competences in the agrocomplex was carried out how to identify the most competitive educational programs for vocational education and training of adults on regional labor markets, which can be successfully exported by Russia to other countries. We also identified innovative educational products required by the agricultural sector in Russia. The purpose of this article is to study the process of implementation vocational education and training for adults at russian agricultural universities to international educational markets.
The article investigates still poorly known history of Turkestan University. There was no higher education in Central Asia before 1917. After the coalition of the Bolsheviks with leftist parties came to power they faced the problem of preparing staff for new regional administration. The whole system of governance and education was to be seriously changed. In addition, the Bolsheviks wished to attract lower classes to their side. Projects of new type of universities combining different levels of education were then elaborated. Authorities decided to set up separate Oriental Institute charged with preparing specialists in Oriental languages, history, geography, ethnography and culture. The author argues that European intelligentsia was the main actor of higher education building in early Soviet Central Asia. This process began in the late imperial time when popular science societies appeared and local intellectual elite with the assistance of St Petersburg Orientologists Oldenburg and Bartol’d attempted to establish Institute of Oriental Studies in Tashkent. There are no evidences that Muslim reformers (Jadids) took part in the creation of the Turkestan University and taught in it later though this wrong impression is wide spread in contemporary literature. Archival sources do not allow considering Lenin the founder of Turkestan University as was argued by Soviet historians. At the same time, he contributed a lot in creating material base and staff of the University. In 1920 the University lost its autonomy and became subordinate to the People’s Commissariat of Education of the RSFSR. After the arrival of trains with professors from Moscow, the Turkestan intelligentsia was removed from leadership positions at the University. Starting from 1923 a series of reforms was carried out in the University that changed its name to Central Asian University and in 1924 passed to the new union republic of Uzbekistan though connected subordination to Moscow.
This work contains an express answer to four questions about what happened in the higher education system at the very beginning of the introduction of quarantine measures: (1) how have universities and the states reacted worldwide? (2) what are the reaction of Russian universities? (3) how do students and teachers perceive the situation? (4) Is there enough infrastructure to implement quarantine measures of remote work and training?
Most of the analytics were collected on an initiative basis, but the most important sections were written on the basis of data collected within the working group of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science to organize educational activities in the context of preventing the spread of COVID-19 infection in the Russian Federation under the leadership of the Department of Youth Policy (in terms of sociological student survey) and the Department of Information Technology in the field of science and higher education (in terms of monitoring infrastructure and opportunities Translation courses in distance learning). Data collection and analysis would not have been possible without cooperation with MIREA, as well as representatives of ITMO University, Ural Federal University, Tomsk State University and support from Mail.ru Group and the Association of Volunteer Centers.
We estimate efficiency scores for Russian universities based on data set of input and output criteria by using Data Envelopment Analysis. In addition, we use a reputation index as another indicator of a university’s productivity. To construct it, 4000 contexts are analyzed and 13 reputation criteria are found. The threshold procedure is used to aggregate them into a reputation indicator. Factors which lead a university to be efficient are studied.
The article is based on the historical-sociological analysis of the models of science in Russia and Germany, which serves as a basis for separation of convergence and divergence phases in the process. “The turning point” from former to the latter is establishment of the soviet model of science which leaded to universities’ deprivation of research function and their transformation into clearly educational institutes.
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GUNi Series on the Social Commitment of Universities Higher Education in the World 5 Knowledge, Engagement and Higher Education: Contributing to Social Change We are living through a crisis of scale that affects all systems and that requires a new understanding of human progress and a new conscience that supports a new way of being in the world. The fifth edition of the GUNi Report, entitled: Knowledge, Engagement and Higher Education: Contributing to Social Change, explores the critical dimensions in our understanding of the roles and potential roles of knowledge, civil society and higher education institutions (HEIs) as active players in contributing to the creation of more just and sustainable world. The creation and dissemination of relevant knowledge could contribute to transforming the paradigms and beliefs established in social, economic and political systems and to moving to creative and innovative way of thinking and imagining new realities. Knowledge could help in raising ethical awareness and facilitating the civic commitment of people and professionals. In this sense, this Report will call upon policy-makers, scholars and leaders of HEIs around the world to rethink the social responsibility of HE. The Report provides visibility and critically examines the theory and practice of engagement. It approaches the challenge of Community-University Engagement (CUE) in an integrated manner. It explores ways in which engagement enhances teaching and learning, research, knowledge mobilization and dissemination. It approaches engagement in ways that accept the multiple sites and epistemologies of knowledge, as well as the reciprocity and mutuality in learning and education through engagement. The Report offers elements of a vision for a renewed and socially responsible relationship between higher education, knowledge and society. It is a product of three years research, in which 73 authors from all the world regions have contributed. GUNi has previously published four issues of the Higher Education in the World report (2006, 2007, 2008, 2011), plus a synthesis (2009) committed by UNESCO for the II World Conference on Higher Education held in Paris in 2009. www.guninetwork.org
Institutions play a key role in building entrepreneurial ecosystems (EEs). However, the academic literature does not well represent the historical roots of these institutions and most works are devoted to developed countries. This article examines the institutional conditions for the development of scientific and entrepreneurial activities at universities in the context of the transition to a market economy. It considers the «path dependence» (mentality and infrastructure inherited from the past), as well as specific mechanisms for regulating the interaction of universities and other subjects of EE developed during the transition period. Such an approach allows us to assess the potential of universities for the development of entrepreneurship in countries with a transition economy and the impact of historical development paths upon the current structural conditions and the specific features of the EE.