Intergenerational Value Differences in Latvia and Azerbaijan
The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to the fact that a young generation of citizens in the new independent states grow up in conditions that substantially differed from their parents’ period of socialization. A large number of ethnic Russians, who previously lived in one state, now live in different countries outside Russia. The sociopolitical status of Russians changed dramatically: they became an ethnic minority and faced the challenge of adapting to their new life status. In this study we follow the trajectories of value comparisons between two generations within countries in minority and majority groups, within generations between countries, and a cross-country comparison of families.
SOVIET ECONOMIC MODEL: UNION CENTER AND THE BALTIC REPUBLICS 1953 to March 1965 For the first time ever, this collection of documents offers its readers a whole range of sources on economic history of the Baltic republics. These documents will give the reader a picture of the main trends, problems and achievements of national economies of the Baltic republics, their interaction with the union Center, decision coordination mechanisms, conflicts and controversies accompanying these relationships.
The article reviews a problem set of intergenerational cultural transmission through the example of primers, which were published for Russian-speaking children in Latvia and Poland in the period of 1920s. We compare the content of the alphabet books published in limitrophe states with the content of the alphabet books published in Soviet Russia at the same time, so as to reveal the particular nature and instruments of socio-cultural transmission in the communities of Russian-speaking minorities who found themselves in the actual emigration. Conceptual framework of research consists of culture typology by M. Mead and recent studies of intergenerational cultural transmission and social cohesion. Source base of conducted research consisted off three primers published in 1920s in Latvia and one primer published in Poland. In addition we reviewed two primers published within the same time frame in Soviet Russia. Model of intergenerational transmission in the analyzed Latvian emigrant primers is based on a child’s urge to individual development of values and guidelines, testing of behavioral practices, etc., using means recommended by adult community, i.e. knowledge and education. Therefore, Latvian primers «allow» children to be included in network of weak ties, thereby loosening in-group cohesion, but preparing children for integration into dominant culture. In the Polish edition of primer for Russianspeaking children one can observe classic post figurative type of intergenerational cultural transmission. This «permanence» of conveyed values and illusion of stability homogenize community, both vertically and horizontally, and provide in-group cohesion, protecting the group as a cocoon from cultural diffusion and assimilation. In Polish textbooks this cohesion strategy is supported and strengthened by representation of external environment as hostile and in-group environment as stable, based on age-proven popular wisdom and support of superior, i.e. divine, essence. Content analysis of primers published in 1920s in Soviet Russia allows talking about reconstruction of postfigurative type of intergenerational cultural transmission. In the context of actual abruption of cultural continuity the strategy of extrapolation of intrafamilial model to the society at large is used here. It enables to normalize current social transformations and legitimates established social hierarchy.
The application of «protective reservations» is a fundamental principle of modern codifications of the private international law. The post-graduate student of the Private International Law Department, Faculty of Laws, National Research University «The Higher School of Economics», the advocate E.A. Kruty (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) minutely analyses provisions about the reservation about the public policy and mandatory rules which are included in the international acts and ten national codifications of XXI centuries (Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Estonia, Mongolia, Russia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Macedonia, Turkey). Despite the apparent prevalence of the negative construction of the reservation about the public policy the lawmaker prefers in some situations its positive variant. An appeal to codifications allows to identify the certain conditions on which protective reservations take effect. Their most detailed description is contained in the Belgian and Bulgarian codes. Not less interesting is a regulation of the legal consequences coming as a result of application of these legal institutions for private legal relations with a foreign element including in the international civil procedure.
This empirical research includes questionnaire data of 86 new full-time employees from two companies. Significant differences were observed in self-monitoring and career anchors of three generations: Baby Boomers (1946-1964), Generation X (1965-1983), Generation Y (1984 or later), with younger generations (X&Y) being higher level of expressive controls in order to ensure appropriate or desired public appearances. Significant differences were observed in organizational culture understanding of the various generations during pre-entry as well as at the end of on-boarding period (4-6 work months).