Школьная дифференциация в условиях разных социальных контекстов
Analysis of social exclusion in city space.
Internаtional Sociological Association, Working Group on Local and Global Relations (WG 01)
This chapter explores changes in the relationship between social inequality and the use of childcare arrangements in Russia between 1994 and 2012. These changes are evaluated against changes in the context surrounding the system of childcare provision throughout the post-Soviet period. In particular, we consider the following changes: increasing household competition for state-subsidized childcare provision and its differentiation, the adoption of neo-familialist social policies in the 2000s, and the growing relevance of informal relations in securing access to formal childcare services. To empirically investigate the changes in the use of childcare arrangements by different types of families we rely on data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (1994–2012). We find that families with higher social standing are more likely to participate in formal public childcare, although inequality in access has slightly decreased in the 2000s. On the other hand, inequality increased with regard to expenditure on external childcare, which suggests that more advantaged families switched to different forms of childcare. This is partly corroborated by the fact that these families use formal public childcare less intensively, possibly by exposing their children to other types of childcare. Social inequalities also exist in informal childcare arrangements; whereas more advantaged families generally make wider use of these arrangements, they are less likely to limit themselves to exclusive parental care, which is more widely spread in the less advantaged families. The patterns of informal childcare remained largely unchanged throughout the period considered.
Sociological research can and should become a scientific basis for formation of social policy, allowing to mitigate the growing negative phenomena in society. Study of the causes of social inequality, tendencies of deepening or weakening of signs of differentiation society, international experience of state and public response negative social indicators, national and regional practice of influencing various manifistations of inequality of both local and national character - the most important directions of the fundamental and applied sociological science.
The collection presents reports of more than 1300 sociologists on various aspects of social inequality and social justice.
In an analysis of research data on three generations of Russians, it was found that the impetus prompted by the social and economic transformation in the early 1990s that opened up opportunities for social and professional growth had been practically exhausted by late 2006, and the tendency toward downward social mobility has become more pronounced. This provides evidence that the social structure of today's Russia is "stagnant" and there are no positive shifts in its dynamics.
The concept of social inequality, its nature and forms.
Current empirical sociology features a limited set of indicators for associating individuals with certain social groups (classes or strata). European sociologists rely heavily on such an informative descriptor as occupation, which has become institutionalized and thus produces certain requirements of human, social and cultural resources for individuals to perform the underlying functions. However, this indicator manifests at least two substantial restrictions: first, it is natural that certain types of economic activity are historically less stable than the social classes with which they are associated; and second, Russian history demonstrates that in a developed society the system of occupations is consistent with its institutional set-up and system of values, which are transferred from generation to generation. In Russia specific occupations are associated with a certain character of labour yet not with particular status characteristics that should result from the corporate nature of professional associations. In fact, in that society there exists a unique form of social stratification, in which a hierarchy of social estates dominates elements of true class differentiation.
From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious ‘eduLIFE Lifelong Learning Series’ provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling, examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment.
Models of Secondary Education and Social Inequality brings together a number of cross-national and country studies conducted by well-known experts in the field. In contrast to existing empirical research, this book reconstructs individuals’ educational careers step-by-step, providing a longitudinal perspective essential for an appropriate understanding of the dynamics of inequalities in secondary education. The international viewpoint allows for an illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.
This book will be of great interest to policymakers, researchers and professional experts in the field, including sociologists, pedagogues, international political scientists and economists, and also serves as a major text for postgraduate and postdoctoral courses.