Актуальные вопросы реализации концепции устойчивого развития в России
Economic growth in developing economies and the transition of large population groups to the middle class lead to a surge in energy consumption and hence in greenhouse gas emissions. The solution to such issues as poverty and inequality comes therefore into conflict with climate change mitigation. The existing international climate change regime does not address this contradiction. The existing international system of climate regulation does not address this contradiction. Today, the global climate governance relies on the estimates of aggregate emissions of countries not considering the level of development and the distribution of emissions among income groups within each country. Emissions from production are being monitored, while consumption-related emissions, albeit known be experts, rarely underlie decision-making. Meanwhile, income distribution has a higher impact on consumption-based emissions in comparison to the production-based ones. Decisions on the emission regulation are made at the national level by countries with different development agendas where the climate change mitigation often gets less priority in comparison to other socio-economic objectives.
The paper proposes a set of principles and specific mechanisms that can link both climate change and inequality within a single policy framework. Firstly, we highlight the importance of modification of the global emission monitoring system for the sake of accounting for emissions from consumption (rather than production) by income groups. Secondly, we suggest the introduction of a new redistribution system to address climate change including a "fine" imposed on households with the highest levels of emissions. Such a system follows the principles of progressive taxation but underlies climate mitigation objectives and can rather be treated not as taxation of high incomes but as payment for negative externality. Thirdly, we outline the need for adjustment of climate finance criteria: priority should be given to projects aimed at 1) reducing the carbon intensity of consumption of the social groups entering the middle class, and 2) at adaptation of the poorest population groups to the climate change. The special role in the implementation of these principles may belong to BRICS countries which could use it as a chance for proactive transition to the inclusive low-carbon development.
Recommendations for teachers on the organization of the educational process based on the case “Tigrus - more than business” and examples of its solution
Three approaches are developed for assessment of different types of organizational ambidexterity proposed in the relevant literature. The new model for measurement of organizational ambidexterity using data envelopment analysis (DEA) is introduced. The DEA score based on innovation activity inputs and two different performance outputs acts as a proxy for organizational ambidexterity. Sustainability goals and product ambidexterity are also analyzed as the key characteristics of ambidextrous behavior. The introduced three approaches are tested for their aptness to complement each other as well as to support a strategic decision-making. Empirical examples from energy and pharma sectors associate organizational ambidexterity with firms’ performance. We measured the organizational ambidexterity of energy and pharma companies by (1) pursuing long-term versus short-term organizational performance measured as a DEA two-output efficiency score; (2) the share of disruptive products in a company’s activities assessed through the proportion of R&D expenditure or sales; and (3) sustainability versus financial performance of the company, where the Green ranking and participation in innovative financing programs were used as proxies for sustainable development. Positive relation between performance and organizational ambidexterity for energy sector are discovered. At the same time, orientation towards sustainability disrupts performance of pharmaceutical companies. Results of the OA impact on performance are highly industry-sensitive and depend on the methods used in empirical assessment. Our findings suggest that the scarcity of data sources make all three approaches complementary and mainly functional for strategic decision-making.
In this paragraph, the authors focus on analysing all the factors related to the accumulation of human potential and the integration of new knowledge in rural communities on Altai Krai’s Kulunda steppe that are largely responsible for the sustainable socio-economic development of this area. The analysis leads them to conclude that the understanding of the term ‘sustainable development’ in the directives of the krai and municipal administrations should be expanded in order to allow for the implementation of a number of measures. Those aimed at the socio-economic development of the region to ensure a specific quality of life for all generations in rural communities, both contemporary and future, that would involve the full realization of their human potential.
The article discusses the impact of information and communication technologies on economic growth in Russian regions. The work is aimed at formalisation of a model applicable for calculating the gross regional product with a production factor presented by information and communication technologies. The objectives of the work involve the explanation of the specifics of the information and communication technologies impact on the socio-economic development of regions, derivation of a model formula and model assessment complemented by the interpretation of the obtained result. Capital and labour related to information and communication technologies represented mathematically as complementary factors to all other capital and labour form the scientific novelty of the study. Based on an analysis of models previously proposed by other authors, a new formula was derived using the least squares method for the assessment of the model approximation trend. The results of the work can be applied in statistical studies of regional economics, as well as in terms of management recommendations for regional and federal authorities. In conclusion, the hypothesis is made considering information and communication technologies as a separate production factor in overcoming existing and potential crisis economic situations in regions, while remaining within the framework of the sustainable development paradigm.