Toward an ethics of digital government: a first discussion
In this panel, scholars discuss involving data, computational analysis, and information technology that has the potential to present ethical quandaries in the course of decision making related to digital government. More specifically, the presentations focus on algorithm-based decision making, personally identifiable information, and the manipulation of public opinion in social media channels. Discussion following the presentations will focus on how ethical guidelines should be formulated or what their specific content should be.
The paper claims all metaphysical views could be divided in two classes: metaphysical moral exclusivism that is the idea of the otherworldly nature of morality, and metaphysical moral inclusivism that is the idea that morality is an intrinsic component of the reality. The originality of the proposed separation is justiﬁ ed by historical review and the comparison with known ethical concepts. We also consider how the metaphysical notions of morality should correlate with the methodology of the empirical study of moral consciousness. We show that asking the question about the place of morality in the structure of reality imposes some theoretical constraints upon the Is-Ought Problem.
In this paper, we present a modification of dynamic programming algorithms (DPA), which we denote as graphical algorithms (GrA). For some single machine scheduling problems, it is shown that the time complexity of the GrA is less than the time complexity of the standard DPA. Moreover, the average running time of the GrA is often essentially smaller. A GrA can also solve large-scale instances and instances, where the parameters are not integer. For some problems, GrA has a polynomial time complexity in contrast to a pseudo-polynomial complexity of a DPA.
Information systems have been developed in parallel with computer science, although information systems have roots in different disciplines including mathematics, engineering, and cybernetics. Research in information systems is by nature very interdisciplinary. As it is evidenced by the chapters in this book, dynamics of information systems has several diverse applications. The book presents the state-of-the-art work on theory and practice relevant to the dynamics of information systems. First, the book covers algorithmic approaches to numerical computations with infinite and infinitesimal numbers. Also the book presents important problems arising in service-oriented systems, such as dynamic composition, analysis of modern service-oriented information systems, and estimation of customer service times on a rail network from GPS data. After that, the book addresses the complexity of the problems arising in stochastic and distributed systems. In addition, the book discusses modulating communication for improving multi-agent learning convergence. Network issues, in particular minimum risk maximum clique problems, vulnerability of sensor networks, influence diffusion, community detection, and link prediction in social network analysis, as well as a comparative analysis of algorithms for transmission network expansion planning are described in subsequent chapters. We thank all the authors and anonymous referees for their advice and expertise in providing valuable contributions, which improved the quality of this book. Furthermore, we want to thank Springer for helping us to produce this book.
I discuss the ontological nature and heuristic value of psychedelic experience. I argue that psychedelic phenomena may manifest the activity of certain mental formations and brain mechanisms that otherwise remain hidden. Thus, psychedelic phenomena can be heuristic tools and intriguing objects of the scientific study. I consider two types of psychedelic phenomena in particular. The first is the moral cleansing that may accompany a psychedelic trip. The second is the appearance of visual and auditory hallucinations. I establish a unified explanatory ground for the phenomena that are commonly viewed as distinct in their genesis. I explain both types of phenomena as products of the amplified imaginative ability of the brain under a substance’s influence. I suggest that the activation of imagination causes an increased empathy and thus accentuates moral feelings. I propose the hypothesis that hallucinations are mental objects of a quantum nature. I argue that no ontologically separate reality stands behind psychedelic visions.
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.