Эвристический потенциал теорий элит в изучении человеческого капитала
This paper analyzes the role of education in economic growth with special focus on countries with high participation in tertiary education. The practical challenge that this conceptual paper is trying to address is that global economic growth is decreasing in the last decades – especially in developed countries.
It is for the first time when the phenomenon of the political class is being investigated in the Russian political science literature. In this edition, the political class is viewed as a community of persons professionally involved in the sphere of politics. Political elites, administrative and political bureaucracy, deputy corps, party functionaries, analyst center staff, expert community, political consultants, political journalists are regarded as important segments of the political class. The study of political participation of corporate business is also paid attention to. An important advantage is the combination of theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of the research, as well as a comparative perspective: the features of the formation of a political class in Ukraine and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe are considered.
This paper is focused on the problem of aggregate return to education. We consider this factor as an indicator of the professional knowledge capitalization that can be used as a proxy for human capital stock in extended Cobb-Douglas type equation for modeling the economic growth. Identification of the indicator is based on time-series data on countries and regional economies. To divide the objects into groups with respect to the aggregate return to education, we employ the fuzzy classification methodology instead of the traditional clustering procedure. This approach provides more relevant dividing the whole sample into three homogeneous groups. The first group includes the economies with low level of innovation development. These economies have close to zero or negative rate of return to education. The second group is most numerous. It mostly consists of developed economies with moderate aggregate rate of return to education. The third group includes objects with high return to education. It turned out that they are predominantly emerging economies developing on the base of new technologies. Such a typology provides the opportunities to make some suggestions concerning the relation between innovation development and quality of human capital stock. In particular, high rate of return to education in emerging economies we explain by the excess demand on high-qualified staff on the labor market that cannot be fully satisfied by existing educational system in the economies with higher level of innovation potential. Conversely, in developed economies, educational system meets the demand of the labor market, so the aggregate return to education is not so high. So it is necessary to be more specific about the structure of educational system for preparing high qualified staff for the most promising directions of innovation development. Comprehensive research of the considered problem at the regional level requires more elaborated data sources.
The article discusses different approaches to the “human capital” interpretation. The interconnection between “human capital” and “career” is specified. Profound analyses and interpretation of empiric material is proposed. Taking into account the interpretation there is a conclusion that studying in specialized classes and a “knowledge aspect” of the human capital with high school students aren’t directly connected: both students of the non-major and specialized classes don’t really think seriously about building their career in future. The human capital being figured out through the USE credits doesn’t depend on a students’ aspiration to build either vertical or a horizontal career.
The common indicators of the human capital of Russian blue collars are typical for the post-Soviet countries but are highly dispersed by age groups, industries, and types of settlement. Still, these indicators are very low for 75% of Russian blue collars, while the rest have quite high-quality human capital and constitute a talent pool for a tech breakthrough in the national economy. The core drawbacks in the human capital of Russian blue collars from both groups are the lack of professional education in the chosen area and poor inclusion in the system of further learning. These disadvantages are especially evident for blue collars in developed countries.
The quality of the human capital of Russian blue collars had gradually improved until the second half of the 2000s. However later, workers were less and less likely to choose a job corresponding to their major, and less often to obtain it. On the other hand, Russians with professional education were less likely to choose blue-collar jobs. The barriers to a better quality of human capital were no goals among workers, especially those with blue-collar family traditions, for upskilling, as well as a limited number of jobs promising high qualifications. The poor quality of human capital among most blue collars and their unwillingness to improve their skills are, in these conditions, a rational response to the situation at hand.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on one of the major emerging Asian economies – India – to examine the role of human capital in asset prices.
The present paper is aimed at considering the evolution of human capital theory. Drawing on the wide range of classical and recent studies, the author shows the link between changes in economies of industrially developed countries and the development of the human capital theory revealed in the expanded list of indicators measuring human capital. The author proposes a periodization of the human capital theory suggesting 5 phases: (1) the pre-industrial phase (up to the seventeenth century); (2) the phase of mass education (the nineteenth through the rst half of the twentieth century); (3) the late industrial period (1960s–1970s, the period when the core of the human capital theory was established); (4) the post-industrial period I (1980s–2000s); and (5) the post-industrial stage II or contemporary period (2000s–2010s). The study reassesses narrow interpretations, which still widely exist among applied economists. Based on the findings of the human development studies, the author argues for a broader list of indicators of human capital, and, specifically, considers human capital through the lens of national development; moreover, this coincides with the core of the given theory. It is shown that the traditional interpretation of human capital, known as years of schooling and training, does not represent the current situation in the economy, and can be extremely harmful to society if it is adopted as the basis of public policy oriented to the formation and growth of society. The present study can be useful to both economists and sociologists focusing on the indicators of human capital and its contribution to the socioeconomic development of a modern society.