Концепт «Другого»: классическая vs неоклассическая модель науки
The article discusses the concept of “the Other” as the basis of the ethics of tolerance. The problem is considered in the context of the theory of the historical process, of historical methodology, ethics in a core role of types of rationality / models of science. Singled out three variants of the relationship of epistemology and ethics as components of philosophy: opposition, interdependence, concurrency. Research substantiates the hypothesis that the classical type of rationality does not problematize “the Other” and, accordingly, a tolerant attitude toward it; non-classical rationality assumes interest towards “the Other”, which entails a tolerant attitude, which gets the clarity in the postnonclassical rationality, where tolerance becomes one of the foundations of ethics. Special attention is given to the concept of source study in historical knowledge in the context of the neoclassical science, focused methods of source study of historiography and comparative source study, which provide the ability to interpret strictly scientific and to compare different socio-cultural communities.