Становление деспотического государства в древней Месопотамии
The textbook chapter deals with the public system of rural agricultural communities. Description the Asian way of production; characteristics of the institute of supreme public ownership on land; definition of the special features of the economic self-awareness of Ancient and Medieval East peoples; analysis of the eastern despotism phenomenon in time aspect are given. Methodical and training materials are attached.
The Discussions of the Textbook “History of Ancient Orient” by V.I. Avdiev in the late 1940s – early 1950s.
Ivan A. Ladynin (Moscow), Natalia S. Timofeeva (Moscow)
The paper is built on the documents from the archives (the Russian Academy of Sciences; the Department of Ancient History, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University; the Russian State Archive for the Social and Political History – RGASPI) added with the published reviews. It shows that the notorious failures and omissions in the textbook by Avdiev (its first and second editions of 1948 and 1953) were well demonstrated in the discussions of its manuscript and in the immediate reviews. The character of the criticism directed against the textbook shows that in the epoch of the “Stalinist empire style” (1940s) academic competence, and not the loyalty and orthodoxy of theoretical schemes became again the accepted criterion for evaluating a research or a university course.
At the Turn of Epochs. Lecture Courses of Ancient History by Michail Khvostov in the Teaching of 1900-1920s.
Natalia S. Almazova
The article deals with the lecture courses “The History of Ancient Orient” and “The History of Ancient Greece” prepared by the famous Russian specialist on Hellenistic Egypt Michail Khvostov still before the revolution of 1917 and republished in 1920s on the initiative of Georgiy Prigorovskiy. One can detect the influence of the cyclist concept created by Eduard Meyer on the schemes underlying these courses: Khvostov recognized the determining role of material factors in the historical process, which was, however, different from the economical determinism in the Marxist concept.