The Judicial System
The article is devoted to the analysis of the judicial power of the marcher lords. Authors investigate common features and peculiarities of the systems in the different lordships of the March of Wales. Special attention is drawn to the influence of the English common law and Welsh law on the judicial procedure in the lordships of the March.
Collection of scientific works "Reforming the judicial system in Russia: history and modernity" dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the Nizhny Novgorod regional court. The presented articles reflect the topical issues devoted to the judicial reform of Russia in historical and modern aspects. The published materials are of interest to the scientific community, law enforcement officers, teachers, graduate students, undergraduates, adjuncts, students.
The article continues the series of analytical reviews, adopted during the sessions of the European Commission for Democracy through Law. The authors analyze adopted on the 113-th Plenary session Opinion CDL-(2017)036 regarding to Poland, prepared in light of an extensive judicial reform. Consideration and adoption of the Opinion had debatable character due to a wide range of controversial points of the reform. So the Venice Commission came to firm conclusion that the National Council of the Judiciary – the highest body of judicial community – was politicized. The formation procedure of this body, in particular, promotes politization as it includes excessive participation of the Parliament. The Polish lawmakers are going to create in the structure of the Supreme Court two new chambers – Extraordinary and Disciplinary. Legal provisions on these chambers provoked criticism by the Venice Commission because of obviously incompliance of the status of the chambers with international standards and the theory of procedural law. Finally, the Venice Commission examined in detail the Polish bills to ensure the independence of judges and came to the disappointing conclusion about gross breach of this principle. On independence, in particular, adversely affected excessive powers of the presidents of the courts regarding to judges. At the same time the presidents of the courts are in a vulnerable position too, Polish bills view them as a kind of officials, supervised by the Ministry of Justice. Considerable attention in article is paid to finding parallels with the Russian legislation on judicial system and status of judges. The authors came to the conclusion that a number of problems for Poland and Russia is similar.
The Russian Constitution reflects universally recognised consensus in the area of promoting the principle of equality and non-discrimination, enshrining main guarantees of equality of citizens regardless of their national and ethnic origins, gender, age, social and other status and other criteria. The Constitutional Court's case-law develops and clarifies these basic provisions enriching them by criteria of admissible differentiation of legal status. Preferences given to some vulnerable groups of people im comparison with the general group may raise the issue of positive discrimination the origins and types of which are expounded in the report. The analysis is given of main situations where the Russian Constitutional Court faced that issue and the evolution of its cas-law on the matter, especially in the light of the European Court of Human Rights' approaches.
In the article the author considers the stages of modernization most significant for the national justice: during the reforms of the 18th century, the 19th century, and the October Revolution of 1917. As history shows, revolutions and evolutionary reforms are the two main forms of development of nature and society, including state and legal institutions. Important in these cases is the legitimation, which can provide previously acquired or newly created stability and social utility. The court is an important element in the political and legal systems. As the author demonstrates, the change in the latter invariably entails a change in the former, primarily because he performs law enforcement, human rights and law enforcement functions in the legal model of statehood and, accordingly, law enforcement, law enforcement and law enforcement functions in non-legal, totalitarian, for example, statehood models various historical eras. The development of a court like any other socio-political institution can take place either in an evolutionary or revolutionary way: as a general rule, the former presupposes reforming or improving the old one, while preserving the traditional traits, while the second involves breaking the old one and creating a new one radically different from the former, but at the same time not necessarily progressive. Comparing the two versions of the revolutionary in essence and the results of the transformation of the court in the domestic history, the author concludes: in the first case, the reforms of Peter I corresponded to the task of its modernization and were sufficiently conditioned by the tendencies of not only political, but also economic, social and cultural development of Russia, although and a few ahead of them. In the second example of the post-October revolutionary breakdown of the progressive, in fact, court, the new court did not correspond to the features and qualities of the proper organization of justice, but was conditioned and substantiated by the interests of the new ruling class and the Soviet socialist state, whose task is precisely their expression and protection.
Author analyzes the legal nature of forming of the extraordinary powers of Russian president. The key theoretical concepts is described in this article. Author sets great store by Constitutional Court practice that designs the extraordinary powers institute.
The collection of scientific works "Reforming the judicial system in Russia: history and modernity" is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the Nizhny Novgorod regional court. The presented articles reflect the topical issues devoted to the judicial reform of Russia in historical and modern aspects. The published materials are of interest to the scientific community, law enforcement officers, teachers, graduate students, undergraduates, adjuncts, students.