Russian Political Ideology
The article suggests a typology of Spanish conservatism as a political ideology that preserves a certain doctrinal continuity over the past five centuries. Separating in the history of Spanish conservatism three stages - a genetic (from the end of XV and the end of the XVIII century.), Classic (late XVIII to the 60s of XX century) and modern (with 1960), - the author shows that their specificity was conditioned by the nature of the challenges faced Spanish society: the search for the answer to the Protestant challenge (Reformation of the XVI century.) determined its genesis and general features.
Since 2008 the neoliberal mainstream, which seemed to be steadfast, has been suffering both economic and political crisis. This makes people seek an alternative of right or left kind. In such circumstances, alternative political forces attempt to satisfy civil society’s needs suggesting new ideas that challenge the neoliberalism. Therefore, both leftist and rightist revolts have been a search for new growth drivers and new balance within societies that takes all the classes and their interests into consideration.
This process is closely tied to several major shifts. The privatization of state’s functions has been doubted and put the return of public capital on the agenda. The voice of people demanding a more equal access to public goods, for example, education gets louder.
There are new politicians able to get this message and obtain a broad popular support. They are, for instance, Jeremy Corbyn in the UK and Jean-Luc Melenchon in France. However, what is behind the leftist revolt? Does it have any chance to succeed?
The author defines three conceptual and-valuative levels of Spanish conservatism, their relationship and basic intentions; he discovers the basic antinomies of Spanish conservatism which determine its historical dynamics in 1808–2008.The discursive features of Spanish reformism and anti-reformism are analyzed.
The events of 2016–2017 sharply changed the political balance in the West and across the world. The Brexit success, sensational victory of Donald Trump, the atmosphere of ‘the last battle’ ‘on the brink of a precipice’ during the presidential elections in France, a dramatic turn to right wing nationalism in Poland, Hungary and some other countries of Central Europe – the whole of it brought the rightist revolt against the neoliberal mainstream (and response to it) into the global focus.
‘We are transferring power from Washington, D.C. and giving it back to you, the American People’ — the Trump’s sharp rebuff of traditional mainstream rhetoric and turn to white-wing nationalism brought the new term of ‘Trumpism’ into being. Nevertheless, the Trump’s rise to power was the result of a broader demand for transformation of the American political system.
The Trumpism is deeply rooted in the American political history and has a certain value system in its core. It amalgamates leftist and rightist elements, forming the bloc of interests, although contradictory. The Trumpism is a new approach to the settlement of old issues, especially economic ones. Trump’s policy is based on the interests of middle capital and aimed at weakening big capital in favour of the middle capital. Thus, this makes the value of protecting the domestic market or sound protectionism a matter of key importance.
What is the future of the Trumpism? Will Europe follow the example of the US? What should be Russia’s attitude towards the ‘rightist revolt’?