Жизненные цели жителей столиц и регионов и возможность их достижения
Comparability of scores between culturally and socially different is always a problematic question. It is even more questionable when the scores of latent variables are compared. Latent variables are frequently measured with several indicators, and the structure of indicators may differ between groups, resulting in the scores of the latent variables that may turn to be very different in terms of configuration and scale. This problem was labeled measurement invariance (MI) and became a necessary part of the studies with latent constructs. The lack of MI between groups may lead to biased or wrong conclusions. MI is an issue especially in cross-cultural studies, in which cultural differences as well as translation of questionnaire may evolve differences in latent construct structures. The paper discusses different methods of assessing MI and uses multiple group confirmatory factor analysis to test MI of four Schwartz higher order values among four populations surveyed during 4 and 5th rounds of European Social Survey. Since our interest is the sources and the extent of MI, only samples surveyed in Russian language were selected. The results show only partial scalar invariance that allows for comparison of means across groups. However, full scalar invariance is not achieved due to the differences in translation to Russian between four countries.
Survey data on comparisons between teachers in Russia and other countries show that the average Russian schoolteacher places a very high value on security and a very low value on the opportunity to enjoy life and have pleasure. Russia's schoolteachers are more often ahead of other Europeans when it comes to the importance of personal success, wealth, and power, as well as obedience and conformity to traditions, and, in contrast, they tend to lag behind when it comes to their adherence to the values of independence, equality, tolerance, helping people around them, and the protection of the environment. The authors see these orientations as cultural barriers to the successful functioning and development of Russian society.
This paper examines commonalities and differences in the value theories proposed by Ronald Inglehart and Shalom Schwartz. A systematic review of previous findings was conducted. Then, we showed, with a joint multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, that Schwartz’s Autonomy vs. Embeddedness dimension tends to lie at the diagonal of the Inglehart Cultural Map of the World, suggesting that in order to be autonomous/open, individuals need to have both self-expressive and secular-rational values, whereas being embedded /conservative involves both traditional and survival values. Two distinct regions of Schwartz’s values (one at each level) which are missed by Inglehart’s instrument were identified. At the same time, an MDS plot revealed that, at the individual level, Inglehart’s Survival values are not captured by the Schwartz’s items included. The obtained structures at the two levels of analysis were shown to be remarkably similar (Tucker’s Phi > .90).