Применение корпусных процедур для определения тексто-специфических слов и измерения сочетаемости
The paper proposes a substantial classification of collocates (pairs of words that tend to cooccur) along with heuristics that can help to attibute a word pair to a proper type automatically.
The best studied type is frequent phrases, which includes idioms, lexicographic collocations, and syntactic selection. Pairs of this type are known to occur at a short distance and can be singled out by choosing a narrow window for collecting cooccurrence data.
The next most salient type is topically related pairs. These can be identified by considering word frequencies in individual documents, as in the wellknown distributional topic models.
The third type is pairs that occur in repeated text fragments such as popular quotes of standard legal formulae. The characteristic feature of these is that the fragment contains several aligned words that are repeated in the same sequence. Such pairs are normally filtered out for most practical purposes, but filtering is usually applied only to exact repeats; we propose a method of capturing inexact repetition.
Hypothetically one could also expect to find a forth type, collocate pairs linked by an intrinsic semantic relation or a long-distance syntactic relation; such a link would guarantee co-occurrence at a certain relatively restricted range of distances, a range narrower than in case of a purely topical connection, but not so narrow as in repeats. However we do not find many cases of this sort in the preliminary empirical study.
The paper raises an issue of possibilities that are provided by corpus-based approach in analysis of metaphorical transfer based on the aspectual pair upast’ / padat’ (‘to fall’). The author reviews the structure of metaphorical meaning of predicates that enforce the Lakoff’s metaphor ‘LESS IS DOWN’ and also analyses how collocations correlate with valency structure. As a result, the analysis demonstrates that there are typical syntagmatic patterns that are connected with metaphor and have impact on lexical and semantical features of collocates.
The paper is concerned with the methods of analysis of texts and lexical units such as collocations, colligations, chunks, clusters, hedging, etc. The aim of the research is to equip linguists, teachers and students with the skills of objective language analysis and adequate use of modern English language. The research is based upon statistical instruments of corpus manager. Cognitive interpretation of the data is presented. Conclusions are based on the results of compiling an original corpus for teaching British Studies, including 1 700 000 entries, and on analyzing professionally significant ones in a data-driven way. Implementation of corpus instruments such as concordances, collocation and colligation profiles, statistics, frequency characteristics, key-words search, word-clouds and others are under consideration. British National Corpus is used as a reference tool. Technically the research is fulfilled with the help of corpus manager WordSmith Tools 6.0.