Ориентация на рынок как инновационная практика российских НКО: подходы к определению и измерению
This article is devoted to the market orientation as an innovative practice of Russian non-profit organizations. Market orientation is analyzed both as a form of organizational philosophy and culture, and as a set of behavior norms. Approaches to the definition and measurement of market orientation in the non-profit sector in empirical studies are disclosed.
The paper investigates relationship between market orientation of Russian NPOs and their organizational characteristics such as size, experience in a field and geographical scope. The data of the research is all-Russian survey of NPOs (N = 852) and the main method of data analysis is one-way ANOVA with post-hoc multiple comparisons. The results of the study showed the relationship between the level of market orientation and the duration of the organization's operation for beneficiaries and donors and the level of market orientation and geographical coverage for donors.
The article presents a comparative analysis of the internal structure and principles of the organization of volunteer associations in Russia and France from the perspective of the sociology of organizations. The theoretical framework of the study combines the concepts of the neo-institutionalist approach in economic sociology and the network approach to organizations. Data are drawn from a series of in-depth expert interviews with the leaders of socially-oriented volunteer organizations in France and Russia (14 interviews). The author also conducted analysis of legal documents and communication materials of volunteer associations in each of the countries studied (approximately 40 documents totaling over 200 pages of text). It appears that the Russian and French volunteer sectors differ not only in structure and legal status of voluntary organizations, but also in the conceptual definition of volunteering. Drawing on empirical data, it was found that the French volunteer associations exist in a structured institutional environment, while Russian voluntary associations perform in a poorly structured, constantly changing environment, the main problem of which is the lack of cognitive and socio-political legitimacy. Thus, the French model of volunteering is more similar to the mechanism of institutional organizations, while Russian voluntary associations are more typical of networked organizations. This research suggests a different vision of the nature of voluntary organizations and argues that it is impossible to ignore national characteristics in the development of social policy. Conclusions drawn from this research could be applied to the development of public policy regarding the non-profit sector in Russia.
The author deconstructs the prevailing controversial conceptualization of nonprofit marketing and concludes it rests on three principles: voluntary exchange, an open system organization, and self-interest motivation. Negative case analysis of these principles revealed that alternative principles were ignored in the social science literature. Based on a qualitative analysis a revised conceptualization of non-profit marketing was suggested which incorporated the principles of redistribution and reciprocity, the features of a closed model of formal organization, and public interest motivation. The critical theory approach to the study used non-empirical procedures that included negative case analysis. The paper presents results of negative case analysis.
The Context and Characteristics of Non-Profit Advocacy Communications in China
Concept of nonprofit marketing has emerged from discussions of applying the philosophy and techniques of marketing to the public and nonprofit sectors in the marketing literature. However, many of these marketing ideas emerged originally from social science disciplines. Almost all social science can be classified into the two general categories of «individualistic" and "collectivistic" perspectives (Collins, 1994; Olsen, 1992; Parsons, 1961). This study attempts to accommodate a pluralistic stance toward diversity of social science perspectives in context of nonprofit marketing theory. Thus, it is not limited to discussion of individualistic or collectivist references. The study attempts to consider different social science perspectives to validate nonprofit marketing theory.
The article suggests to adopt a pluralism methodological approach in marketing science. Using controversy over marketing to nonmarketers problem paper traces evolution of the issue in context of research methodology and discusses alternative methodological approaches and research paradigms.