«Грунляндские торги»: монопольные сальные компании от Петра I до Екатерины II (1703–1768)
Modernization of Russia should be based on well-founded strategies, which demand the definition of Russia's place in the world. Meanwhile, solution to this problem requires developing of the methodology of history. This article looks at the ontological aspect of historical methodology. Analysis of five conceptions of being (ontological doctrines) suggests that the most constructive methodology of history in frame of its lower level is an evolutionary version of neutral monism.
The book is the first collection of documents in Russian historical science covering the practice of organizing navigation and developing the natural resources of the Spitsbergen archipelago in the 18th-early 20th centuries. XIX century. The Russian state and Pomor people are residents of the Russian North. The publication is preceded by a study that examines the most significant aspects of the topic, as well as various problems and approaches to them in domestic and foreign historiography.On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the sources of different species and their cross-matching, the full picture of the development of Russian crafts in Spitsbergen in the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century was compiled, as far as possible. Archival documents first introduced into scientific circulation, as well as additional materials included in the annexes, will significantly expand the possibilities for further research on the history of the Russian presence in Spitsbergen and, more broadly, Russia's role in the development of the European part of the Arctic, will allow them to be introduced into the international context that is necessary for understanding the history of the development of this Arctic archipelago.
The paper is focused on the practical issues connected to the organization of Russian hunting expeditions to Spitsbergen in the 18th century including some administrative regulation of Spitsbergen shipping. Using the wide range of archival materials, the authors study the social status and geographical origin of organizers and participants of Spitsbergen hunting.
The paper aims to highlight the major aspects of professional structure of employed population to point out its facilitation and discouraging nature in terms of modernization of Russia. Having in the scope of the analysis such realms as dynamic of manual and non-manual workers, qualified and non-qualified portion of the labor force, and educational and demographic features of occupational structure the paper generalizes the crucial outcomes derived from the studies had been accomplished by the author and his colleagues for the recent six years
The chapter traces the history of evolution of Russian liberal thought in the span of the 19th century and explores how Russian liberals conceptualized the phenomenon of imperial diversity and related to the context of empire in thinking about potentialities of progressive Russian politics. The author explores the history of importation of blueprints of liberal universalism in Russian liberal thought and the development of the paradigm of national liberalism in reposnse to the challenges of the modern empire. The author argues that the idiom of national liberalism was not the only one. A different paradigm was in existence that may be called imperial liberalism. The chapter finds out how this alternative paradigm helped Russian liberals assume a significant place in public politics in the late imperial period, when the odds of mass politics were against classical liberalism. The chapter introduces the author’s finding of the transnational genealogy of Petr Struve’s program of “Greater Russia.”
the anti-modrenization trend will become the main feature of the country's political regime for the immediate future - this trend dooms the regime for stagnation, making any attempts at technocratic renewal futile. In order to keep the situation under control, the regime will inevitably resort to greater, most likely pre-emptive, and therefore disproportional repression, which will further exacerabate political conflict.