An outline of perfect and pluperfect in the dialect of Gammalsvenskby.
The article analyzes l-forms without an auxiliary with a meaning of a pre-past action. Such l-participles are usually regarded as perfect forms used in pluperfect contexts. However, it will be shown that apparently we deal with the rise of a specialized for expressing the grammatical meaning of result, for which the correlation with time (present or past) was irrelevant. This interpretation is confirmed with the material of Modern Russian dialects with -shi / -vshi perfect and pluperfect, where the -shi / -vshi form used without the auxiliary in the past tense can mean the result pertaining not only to the present, but also to the past.
The paper contains some basic data as well as certain new facts concerning the Bzhedug dialect of West Circassian (Adyghe) and also includes a glossed text.
The Dialect of Gammalsvenskby: A Socio-Linguistic Outline.