2016-й – год побед, что дальше?
This article provides an overview of the responses of British writers of the first half of the 20th century about Russia, the Russians and Russian literature. The opinions of the literary community are presented in chronological order, connected with the changes that have taken place in the country and in the world, they are illustrated by the statements from works, letters and articles. It is shown that the views of British writers on the image of Russia are often contradictory, based on established stereotypes, ethnocentrism or caused by the writer's personal outlook.
This chapter compares the interactions of the EU with Libya and Russia between the late 1990s until 2011, in the context of migration governance in the European “neighbourhood”, and, through the concept of policy transfer, explores the extent to which they invite a broader definition of the European neighbourhood. This comparison builds on crucial similarities between these two countries. From the EU perspective, cooperation with Russia and Libya was key since it considerably affected EU migration management capacities. Beyond the purview of established multilateral fora, the EU has engaged in close relations with Russia and Libya despite their not being parties to European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The fact that the two countries did not partake in the ENP is central to our analysis. The ENP, targeting Eastern Europe, Southern Caucasus, as well as the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean, has attempted to put under the same umbrella countries that have very little in common. Various scholarly works focusing on the assessment of the ENP as a policy transfer instrument, have generally done this through comparisons either between ENP countries or between an ENP country to a non-ENP country. In this chapter, we attempt a comparison of two non-ENP countries that are, nonetheless, important EU neighbours. In this context, the chapter seeks to explain how Libya and Russia contributed to, and were deeply implicated in, the development of EU neighbourhood. This perspective builds on the proposition that the interaction with countries that influence so significantly migration patterns to the EU and yet are not fully ENP members has much to say about EU neighbourhood strategy and impact. We trace the negotiations on migration between the EU and Russia and those between the EU and Libya and highlight differences and similarities. We pay special attention to bargaining dynamics and policy outcomes in such areas as readmission, visa facilitation and border management. We show how agendas, problems and solutions in EU cooperation with Russia and Libya are comparable, though different, insofar as they are mutually constituent rather than unilaterally driven by the EU. Consequently, we reflect on the evolving meaning of the “neighbourhood” through the lens of formal, informal and ad hoc methods of cooperation on migration. Representing outliers or “outsiders” not only of the European integration process, but also of the ENP, the cases of Libya and Russia are markers of processes and norms redefining EU neighbourhood concept. In conclusion, we argue that the relative leeway enjoyed by Libya and Russia and the patterns of two-way transfer with the EU rest on the features that the two countries shared economically and politically, on their migration management capacities, as well as their not being formal neighbours of the EU, even though they belong to the EU’s “invented neighbourhood”. Overall, focusing on the role played by two “difficult” or even “disobliging” neighbours in the construction of EU neighbourhood, we hope to contribute to two strands of literature – on the policy transfer in the area of migration and on the role of “outsiders” in the evolution of EU neighbourhood policy. The chapter invites critical reflection on the “invented” character of the EU neighbourhood, interdependent nature of EU neighbourhood policy, its paradoxes and emerging features. It also contributes to a broader discussion on the usefulness and efficiency of the ENP as a policy transfer framework.
Cross-cultural study of traditional norms and modern structuring of space in a residential building showed, on the basis of the field material collected in Russia and Tanzania, that changing of the organization of the living space in dwellings that occurs under the influence of globalization and propaganda of the Western lifestyle is influenced by the initial culture, religion, climatic conditions, media and economic situation of the population. Substantial changes in the twentieth century have led to serious transformations in structuring of the inner space of the Russian house. Focus on creating comfort for children and youth, and not for the older generation in the residential space reflects the transition of Russian society from postfigurative culture type to cofigurative culture type. But there had been no such transition in Tanzania, since the vast part of the population still lives in poverty.
In modern Tanzanian urban society compared with Russian the preservation of traditional norms structuring of residential space is much stronger, which is related with the living of Tanzanians in the houses of traditional type and with incomplete process of urbanization.
The gender differences in perception and organization of home space are universal − girls, compared to boys, perceive the ethno-cultural model of space organization of the house much better, and probably they would transmit it to succeeding generations in the future. However, in Tanzanian case, gender differences are much smoother, due to the very low economic status of Tanzanians.
The influence of media on the organization of residential space is much more significant in Russia than in Tanzania.
Background: Two recent meta-analyses have suggested the association between digit ratio (2D:4D) and ag-
gression is weak. This conclusion has been criticised because the meta-analyses conflate forms of aggression that show strong sex differences with those that do not, and most studies have considered post-pubertal participants. Aims: We test the influence of 2D:4D and ethnicity in the expression of aggression in children and adolescents in four ethnic groups of European and African origin.
Study design: Buss and Perry aggression questionnaire. Direct measurement of the 2nd and 4th digits. Subjects: 1296 children and adolescents from Tanzania and Russia from 4 ethnic groups – Datoga, Meru, Russians, Tatars. Results: There were ethnic and gender differences in ratings on aggression with boys consistently reporting more physical aggression. In all four samples right 2D:4D was significantly lower in boys, compared to girls. With regard to our total sample of boys, the right 2D:4D was significantly and negatively associated with self-ratings on physical aggression, but no association was found for left 2D:4D. No associations between 2D:4D and physical aggression were found for girls. Hostility was negatively correlated with 2D:4D for boys, and anger was posi- tively correlated with 2D:4D in girls. Conclusion: Sex differences were strongest for right 2D:4D (boys < girls), and for physical aggression (boys > girls). Right 2D:4D was negatively related to physical aggression in boys only, suggesting possible relationship to prenatal androgenization.
Relations between Russia and the West have reached their lowest point since the Cold War. Unfortunately we cannot be sure that they won’t deteriorate even further. It is time to start to mend ties, but the only consensus view shared by both sides is that business as usual is not an option. The relationship cannot be restored; it should be rebuilt. To do this, we first need to reassess the entire international atmosphere, what happened to the relationship, and how it can be transformed based on new realities.
The article is devoted to the trends and determinants of the transformation of Russian regions' industrial specialization during the period of economic growth. Using the methodology of statistic and econometric analysis it is tested whether the tendency of diversification dominates the tendency of regions’ industrial specialization in 1997-2004 and whether there is a convergence of Russian regions' industrial structures. The considered factors of industries' development in a particular location include the initial industrial structure, inter- and intraregional technologic links between industries, quality of investment climate, R&D potential, international competition.
The results of empirical study of the role of climato-economic characteristics of 85 Russian regions in the formation of collectivism on their territory are presented. Based on the results of previous research, authors suggested that in regions with sufficient level of economic resources of population for satisfying its needs that arise in accordance to more demanding climate the level of collectivism is lower, and vice versa in regions with insufficient level of economic resources of population for satisfying its needs the collectivism level is higher. These theoretical assumptions were verified, using database «EMISS», which made it possible to operationalize and calculate the index of collectivism for each region, based on statistical data. As predictors that influence the collectivism level in regions, the climate demand of regions and the economic resources of their population are considered. The study results have shown that the climatic demand in regions and the economic resources of their population can be predictors of the collectivism level on their territory.