Benchmarking and Comparisons of Performance of Local Governments in Germany: Approaches, Advantages and Side Effects
The article investigates why some German local government make use of performance comparisons to improve their service delivery while others do not. Using ordered logistic regressions the study finds that indebted local governments are more likely to compare their performance against that of others.
Agile methodologies are widely introduced in project management though their implementation is often eliminated to separate practices and tools application. A system approach to the maturity developemtn requires special tools which consider IT projects execution peculiarities. Maturity models are the assessment and development tool which provide a company with an opportunity to improve its project management and environment. In the present article the author focuses on exisiting maturity models both in traditional and agile project management.
Problems of an estimation of quality of logistical service are considered. Influence of logistical service on efficiency of business of the company is analysed. The scheme of construction of expectations of consumers of logistical services is offered and components of measurement of quality of service are defined. The Gap-model of Zeithaml of an estimation of quality of service is adapted for logistics problems. The technique of construction of dependence of logistical service (percent of ideally executed orders) from total operational expenses is considered. The model of approximation of the fact sheet of dynamics of an expense/degree of service »for a finding of balance and construction of the budget of service of logistics is offered.
The book contains selected revised papers from the 21st NISPAcee Annual conference "Regionalization and Inter-regional Cooperation", Belgrade, Serbia, 16-18 May 2013, organized in cooperation with the Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
The book contains selected revised papers from the 25th NISPAcee Annual conference "Innovation Governance in the Public Sector", Kazan, Russia, 18-20 May 2017, organized in cooperation with the Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia.
This SFI pamphlet provides a Policy Briefing on the critical and ubiquitous role being performed by benchmarking in public services both in the UK and internationally. It complements and partly draws on a special issue of Public Money and Management edited by me and Alan Fenna which also addresses these issues, and which includes some overlapping material treated in greater depth, and with comprehensive references (see Public services benchmarking and external performance assessment: An international perspective. Guest editors: Clive Grace and Alan Fenna (Vol. 33, No. 4, 2013) at http://www.tandfonline.com/r/pmm-benchmarking).
The purpose of the paper is to reveal factors that may have importance for Russian oil-extracting companies’ sufficiency and investments appeal. At the emerging markets, due to asymmetric information and lack of transparency, investors can make adequate conclusions on their investments in a special company only if they know and understand correctly its business model. If a company demonstrates the steady growth of indicators and ratios that have a substantial importance for its current and potential investors, it has better opportunities to raise funding for its projects. The company’s management may analyze the dynamics of these indicators and make efforts to increase the efficiency.
For oil-extracting companies, that form the basis of the modern Russian economy, the problem of efficiency and investments appeal growth is very important due to the business specifics – the prevalence of fixed assets in assets structure, the high dependence on the natural conditions of extracting, from one hand, and on the market prices, from the other one. It is important to benchmark the efficiency and to concentrate managerial efforts on its leading factors.
To reveal the factors of efficiency, DuPont analysis was made. The sample was formed from the companies that were included at «The Energy Intelligence Top 100: Ranking The World’s Oil Companies 2012». The sample consists of 41 companies, that are included also at «FT Global 500 December 2012». 7 of the companies in the sample represent Russia, others are from different countries of the world. The financial data was collected for the period of 2008-2012. On the base of the regression analysis the impact of factors on the ROE (return on equity) was investigated. Then the best and the worst companies were defined for the purpose of benchmarking of the Russian companies. The managerial recommendations were made on the base of the benchmarking.
The way performance of local authorities is measured and compared varies widely in the OECD (Kuhlmann, 2004; Kuhlmann, 2010). We refer to ‘benchmarking’ if the objective is to identify best practices in order to draw lessons for one’s own organization (‘learning from the best’); this may also include explaining any performance gaps. If we could answer Hood’s (2007) question ‘why does it vary’ we might understand and therefore minimize numerous, often perverse effects associated with benchmarking exercises. Therefore we do compare benchmarking exercises at the local level of government in Sweden, England, Switzerland, and Germany to discover whether there are significant country differences or similarities in the governance structure, the extent of coverage and the utilization of the results. We conclude that benchmarking in local government has to be put into context—its institutional and political starting conditions need to be understood, especially the peculiarities underlying the local administrative structures.