Throughout the last thirty years banlieues in France have been invariably linked with the issues of migration and migrant communi- ties. Migrants appeared there in the 1960s, when France began to import workers for its large industrial plants from her former North African colonies. There are a number of key events that shaped the development of these quarters in France and marking of them as the «zones of exclusion» by the French society. First, it is their settlement in the 1960s – 1970s by migrants and the gradual departure of non-migrants inhabitants. Second, it is the recognition of these social housing quarters by the society as the «migrant» areas. Dur- ing this period, young members of the migrant communities engaged in protest manifestations to assert their equal citizen rights, drawing the attention of the society to the problem of social exclusion of banlieues inhabitants. The third stage was the beginning of the 1990s – the period of large-scale disturbances provoked by the inhabitants of banlieues. Even though France by that time had been for over a decade implementing social integration programs aimed at the inhabitants of these quarters, these «problem areas» still remained a kind of environment that locked in its young inhabitants and impeded their integration into the larger society. These territories begin to be called «ghettoes» thereby stressing their difference, marginality, their location at the social periphery, and the exclusion of their inhabitants from the life of the rest of the city. The next important step were the disturbances of 2005, when the Paris banlieues and the problems of migrants became a topic for discussion on a global scale, as their young inhabitants took to the streets, thereby drawing attention to the obvious problems of these quarters: social exclusion, unemployment, violence, and crime. Even though in the last decade France has been implementing numerous programs aimed at social integration of youth from these quarters, including improvements in education and support for cultural initiatives, banlieues are still the «exclusion zones.» The arti- cle explores the policies of the French state towards members of migrant communities from the 1960s till present. We also consider the policies regarding the inhabitants of the banlieues. In conclusion, we discuss whether the term «ghetto» could be applied to these areas.
The article is about legal regulation of energy medicine in Russia, France and USA. Different legal approches to the problem of illegal energy medicine are described.
The problems of identity are no new theme in the research in African politics. In the foreground of interest of political scientists, historians, philosophers, sociologists and experts in African studies the identity appears in particular in connection with the for¬mation of African nations, the existence of nationalities and ethnics, which have direct influence on the operation of the African political system, especially its institutions. The scholars use a great many different approaches, which suggest the importance of these issues in the research in African integration processes and especially the process of development of modern African nations.
Articles of the next issue of the French Yearbook, dedicated to the 250th anniversary of the birth of Napoleon Bonaparte, are devoted to various aspects of European history associated with his name, as well as their reflection in historical memory and in the historiography of different countries. Among the authors are leading experts on this issue from various research centers in Russia, France, the UK, the Netherlands and Ukraine.
The article covers the current reforms of French system of Higher Education. The author identifies emerging trends of the new management model of sector; analyzes the impact of the new management model on enhancing the competitive advantages of the French Higher Education system in the world; and defines a level of its international demand among prospective students.
Les interactions franco-russes restent peu étudiées dans le domaine des sciences du vivant. Un moment ralenties par la révolution de 1917 et surtout la période stalinienne, les relations scientifiques entre la France et la Russie n’ont pourtant jamais réellement cessé. Contrairement à une idée reçue, même pendant la Guerre froide, les échanges furent presque ininterrompus.
Chacune des contributions russes et françaises du présent ouvrage constitue une étude de cas mettant en avant des scientifiques français ou russes qui ont incarné ces relations. Il ne s’agit pas d’user d’une démarche comparatiste, à la recherche de similitudes et de différences qui figeraient chaque aire culturelle dans son identité, mais plutôt de rendre compte de croisements, d’imbrications constitutives complexes. L’ouvrage est divisé en deux sections respectant les deux sensibilités traditionnelles des sciences de la vie, entre histoire naturelle et médecine, et suit pour chacune d’entre elles une progression chronologique de la fin du XVIIIe siècle à l’époque soviétique.