«Совь и ощица!» Из бытовой истории Московского университета начала ХХ века
This article examines the role of archivists in shaping the capacity and the structure of a university’s memory. Drawing on sources such as laws and ministerial instructions, the authors analyze the government’s archive policy with regard to universities and how professors and archivists were taking part in its implementation. Their participation included sorting documents and attributing them to individual ‘cases’, destroying some of the ‘unnecessary’ documents and preserving others that were designated for destruction. Based on information from service records and university reports, the article tracks changes in the corporate status of university archivists in nineteenth-century Russia.
The present article shows how medico-biological and medico-topographical descriptions of Russian cities and regions can be used as sources for social history of medicine in the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19th century. They bear evidence that graduates of the medical faculties of Imperial universities became experts in social and economic situation of various regions of the empire. Medico-topographical descriptions provide ample information on the number and structure of the population and its occupations, the city space organization, the sanitary and hygienic condition of dwellings, offices, hospitals and almshouses, the level of medical culture development of local population, the predominant diseases and their origin, and the distribution of popular medicine in different areas of Russia. The authors of these descriptions created new knowledge, and they can be used as a reliable source of information about the population in the Russian state.
Vico takes on paramount significance in the defined context, although his actual presence in Russian culture and politics is relatively small at that time. On Russian intellectual stage, he was rather an unseen character, though a very powerful one. In my research, I study these transitions from shadow into the light, and first of all those forms of Vico's philosophy of history that were most favored by Russian thinkers. Besides, I was very interested in drawing a "roadmap" of Vico in the Russian mind of that time, i.e. in showing and analyzing when and how his name and oeuvres become demanded, and what forms further actualization takes. Analysis of a great number of documentary sources of the 1800-1860s (the best part of which is archives) - memoirs, letters, opinion articles - allows for tracing his Russian intellectual itinerary.