Travel Demand Management in the Largest Cities
The largest Russian cities are starting to implement travel demand management instruments to reduce car use. Today the non-pricing instruments are more popular in Russian cities: low emission zones, car sharing, pedestrian areas, public transport development, bicycles infrastructure development, etc. Paid parking is the main pricing instrument of travel demand management in Russian cities. Apart from the general description of pricing methods of the transport demand management which are currently being introduced in Russian cities it is necessary to develop the understanding of the measures effectiveness. Thus the experience of the paid parking implementation (about 20 cities, including Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Yekaterinburg) requires the serious analytical approach. Both ofﬁcial reports on effectiveness by the government and independent surveys are of interest. Not only should the operational parameters be examined, but also the public opinion should be analyzed. Taking into consideration the deﬁcit of the information on the projects of paid parking implementation, the article would be interesting both for Russian and foreign specialists. The survey also deals with organizational, legal and institutional issues.