Реаллокация труда и рост производительности
Recent decades were turbulent for the Russian economy. They include the transformational output fall until 1998, recovery in 1999-2008, and stagnation after the global crisis of 2008. What were main drivers of performance of the Russian economy in these years? The present chapter highlights three main sources of growth, which are windfall profits from energy export, technology catching up in manufacturing, finance and business services, and the negative influence of expanding informal economy to aggregate labour productivity growth.
The present study reports, that oil and gas money fuelled Russian growth in the form of capital services in extended mining and market services. The contribution of capital input was higher in years of soaring oil prices. One more factor of growth was catching up in manufacturing, which is rooted in the fact that Russia, as well as other Central and East European socialist economies on the eve of transition from plan to market, were backwards in technologies in comparison with advanced economies. Finally, the remarkable peculiarity of the Russian economy is the expanding share of informal labour, especially in years of outstanding growth before 2008. This makes Russia, to a certain extent, similar to India. Splitting industries into formal and informal segments and estimating the contribution of labour reallocation we report, that expanding informality slowdowns labour productivity growth.
The article deals with methodological approaches to evaluating of labour productivity of bank staff, identified key indicators that can be applied in the lending agency for the measurement of labour productivity, developed recommendations on the definition of standards of labour productivity, shows the possibility of linking labor productivity with the number of bank staff .
In recent years, key users of macroeconomic performance indicators have advocated increasing the availability of more detailed productivity statistics. In particular, expanding growth accounts to the industry level to meet the need for more granular measures of economic performance. In response to this, Australia and Russia have developed estimates of industry level KLEMS (Capital (K), Labor (L), Energy (E), Materials (M) and Services (S)) productivity growth. The chapter considers the progress of Australia and Russia KLEMS projects in terms of data construction and the usage of KLEMS for better understanding of industry sources of growth. For both countries, at least two decades of KLEMS data are now available, supporting more in-depth analysis of the determinants of growth at the industry level.
The author presents a review of “In the Shadow of Regulation: Informality in the Russian Labor Market” edited by V. Gimpelson and R. Kapeliushnikov (HSE Publishing House, 2014). This book is designed as a collection of texts devoted to various aspects of informal employment in the Russian labor market. The book review attempts to explore whether informal employment can be treated as a result of imperfections in the formal employment system or a special sector that helps to overcome those shortcomings. To answer this question, the author turns to basic definitions in order to understand who can be described as "informally employed". Different approaches to defining informality are given. Then, based on empirical results, it’s demonstrated that the position of "informally employed" сan be better as well as worse, compared to "formal employment". The lack of social guarantees can be considered the most evident shortcoming of being informally employed, while saving money due to the absence of taxation can be seen as a key advantage. There are though countries with both higher and lower incomes among the informally employed in world markets. Turning to Russian realities one should pay attention to the heterogeneity of informal employment: in general, informally employed workers have lower incomes, but some groups, such as freelancers, earn more money. The self-estimation of informally employed people does not prove the idea of informal employment as a problem to the employed themselves as they do not assess their status as lower than being formally employed. Taking into account the variety of aspects of informality, it’s hard to assess it either positively or negatively, but it’s rather evident that the struggle against informality itself would be erroneous while the best way to reduce the informal sector is to correct the formal sector to make it more attractive.
In order to remain competitive, firms need to keep the quantity and composition of jobs close to optimal for their given output. Since the beginning of the transition period, Russian industrial firms have been widely reporting that the quantity and composition of hired labour is far from being close to optimal. This paper discusses what kinds of firms in the Russian manufacturing sector are unable to optimize their employment and why. The main conclusion is that the key issue is an excess of non-viable firms and a shortage of highly efficient firms because of weak selection mechanisms. The major solution is seen in creating institutional conditions that stimulate a more efficient reallocation of labour. The analysis presented in this paper is based on data from a large-scale survey of Russian manufacturing firms.
Labor productivity is the most important factor in the economic growth of the region. Traditional production functions assess the contribution of labor resources to three-fourths of the total one. But today there are new factors, the inclusion of which in the model is necessary, since they determine the key forces of economic development, identify the direction of regional policy.
Economic growth, according to neoclassical theory and the theory of endogenous growth, is influenced by labor resources: population density, quality of labor, the level of employment, investment in human capital, labor productivity. The role of human capital in the models of endogenous growth is considered at two angles: through the ability to generate knowledge and innovative development and as an independent factor - the accumulation of human capital in the region is the basis of economic growth.
The article analyzes classical and modern approaches to assessing the impact of labor resources on economic growth, shows the role played by production functions in such approaches. The characteristic of the main trends of the economic growth of the Russian regions is given, the analysis of development of labor resources and efficiency of their use is made. Production functions such as the Cobb-Douglas type are constructed for the Russian regions, showing the contribution of labor and capital to economic growth, and the statistical significance of these factors is determined. The study was conducted for 83 regions of Russia for the period from 1995 to 2015.
The study will identify the main trends of the impact of the labor force to economic growth, to form the main conclusions for economic policy in the regions of Russia.