Причины, основные направления и итоги тюремных преобразований в России (конец XIX - начало XX века)
The article is devoted to the prison reforms in Russia, which were held in XIX - beginning of XX century and was caused by the necessity of improving the mechanism of management of detention of prisoners. The most important result was the qualitative modernisation of the management of the entire prison system of the Russian Empire.
Monograph is devoted to the functional activity of the ministries of the Russian Empire on the creation of normative acts of subordinate regulatory and legislative character. In the work the traditions of the development of historical forms of regulatory rule-making are determined. The place of the ministries in the implementation of the legislative process of the Russian Empire is denoted. The problems of correlation of normative competence of the ministries and of other subjects of law-making activities of the Russian state in 19 - the beginning of 20 century, including the monarch, the State Council and the State Duma are explored.
The publication is addressed to researchers, students, postgraduate students, teachers of high school, all interested in the problems of law, management and lawmaking.
The article is devoted to the presumptions in standard-setting activities of the ministries of the Russian Empire.The presumption of "ideal of a single government" is considered as the presumption of the unity of the monarch and the Ministers of the Russian Empire. The role of legal presumptions in the lawmaking activity of the Imperial state is handled. The emphasis is made on the development of the mentioned presumption in the framework of the activities of the ministers for the initiation and submission of bills to the law-deliberative and legislative bodies of the Russian Empire.
The article focuses on the project of local administration known as the ‘governor program’ of Alexander I. It was implemented in the interior provinces of the Russian Empire in 1819. The project intended to unify the system of governorgeneral mediation, and it was dismantled at the start of Nicholas I’s rule. Using the fundamental idea of the project, the Emperor wanted to re-organize administration of Russian governorates. The study of Governors’ documentation (1828, 1837, 1842, 1853), its contents, and gendarme’s reports allows us to reconstruct the imperial regional policy, based on the specificity of administrating separate regions of the Russian Empire.
The article is devoted to the distinction between forms of legislative acts in the Russian Empire. Analogy with the modern problem of law-making, which are connected with the allocation of forms, types of regulations, the procedure of their publication is carried out.
This article examines the role of archivists in shaping the capacity and the structure of a university’s memory. Drawing on sources such as laws and ministerial instructions, the authors analyze the government’s archive policy with regard to universities and how professors and archivists were taking part in its implementation. Their participation included sorting documents and attributing them to individual ‘cases’, destroying some of the ‘unnecessary’ documents and preserving others that were designated for destruction. Based on information from service records and university reports, the article tracks changes in the corporate status of university archivists in nineteenth-century Russia.