Неформальный брак в России в 2000–2014 гг.
Youth are, by definition, the future. This book brings initial analyses to bear on youth in the five BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, which are home to nearly half of the world's youth. Very little is known about these youth outside of their own countries since the mainstream views on "youth" and "youth culture" are derived from the available literature on youth in the industrialized West, which is home to a small part of the world's youth. This book aims to help fill in this gap.
The handbook examines the state of youth, their past, present and permits the development of insights about future. The BRICS countries have all engaged in development processes and some remarkable improvements in young people's lives over recent decades are documented. However, the chapters also show that these gains can be undermined by instabilities, poor decisions and external factors in those countries. Periods of economic growth, political progress, cultural opening up and subsequent reversals rearticulate differently in each society. The future of youth is sharply impacted by recent transformations of economic, political and social realities. As new opportunities emerge and the influence of tradition on youth's lifestyles weakens and as their norms and values change, the youth enter into conflict with dominant expectations and power structures.
The topics covered in the book include politics, education, health, employment, leisure, Internet, identities, inequalities and demographics. The chapters provide original insights into the development of the BRICS countries, and place the varied mechanisms of youth development in context. This handbook serves as a reference to those who are interested in having a better understanding of today's youth. Readers will become acquainted with many issues that are faced today by young people and understand that through fertile dialogues and cooperation, youth can play a role in shaping the future of the world.
In Lieu of an Abstract
Youth in Russia has been undergoing massive dynamic changes in terms of marriage and sexuality over the past two decades. This is one of the main factors that determine the norms and trends in contemporary family evolution. These were caused both by universal processes common to all the developed countries, and the huge radical shifts are induced by reforms in the post-Soviet society. Among the most important changes are an increased age of first marriage, a growing divorce rate, an increasing number of single-parent families, a rising extended family ratio (i.e. married couples or mothers with children living with their parents or other relatives) and non-cohabitating married couples. We can identify some other trends, not only in behavior, but also in the perception Russians have of family and marriage (SDDR, 2010: 65–75)…
The goal of the paper is to present the currently available quantitative data on transitions to adulthood in the North Caucasus. Based on the results of the 2013 all-Russia survey 'Person, Family and Society', the North Caucasus is compared to other regions of Russia, with a special focus on the sociodemographic and socioeconomic events related to in the transition to adulthood. By sociodemographic events, we mean sexual debut, first partnership, first marriage and first childbirth. Socioeconomic events include completing education, separation from parents, and gaining one’s first employment. The quantum, timing, tempo and sequence of these events were compared for residents of the North Caucasus and of other regions of Russia born between 1970 and 1994. We discovered that in the North Caucasus the transition to adulthood follows a more traditional standard than in other regions of Russia. Specifically, in the North Caucasus the interval between marriage and birth of the first child is shorter; marriage is much more widespread than partnership; and childbearing takes place more intensively and at younger ages. Gender asymmetries in sociodemographic events are more pronounced in the North Caucasus than in other regions of Russia. Nevertheless, the data also shows certain demographic modernization in the North Caucasus. Thus, men (but so far not women) of younger generations show a larger variety of sequences of the events compared to elder generations, so that the obligatory norm for transition to adulthood is replaced by a variety of life paths.
The topic of demography in recent years excites a lot of discussion among politicians, economists and sociologists. These discussions are reflected in the media including on the Internet: the articles addresses issues of fertility and maternity capital, mortality and health, migration and the labor market. However in these articles it is possible to detect certain errors and inaccuracies which are associated with the use of demographic indicators and their interpretation. This article conducted a content analysis of the Russian Internet editions (mass media), contains the basic errors in these publications in terms of major demographic processes and categories, and the classification of those errors. We have found five types of errors and inaccuracies: the discrepancy of reality, stylistic inaccuracies, inaccuracies in the wording, errors and inaccuracies of interpretation of demographic processes, inaccuracies of use of indicators and terms. Although crude rates are mostly used in the media due to their plainness, for comparison between regions and for a time it is essential to use special demographic indicators such as age-standardized mortality rate, life expectancy, total fertility rate and other. The article would be useful not only to journalists and to the main newsmakers in the person of officials, but also to students who write essays and abstracts on the subject of demography, and to all of them who feel a lack of demographic knowledge.