Urban Spatial Structure as a Factor of Travel Behavior
Urban spatial structure is considered to be one of the determining factors of the transport demand volume and structure. Russian cities are traditionally characterized by high levels of public transport ridership, compared to the Western cities. Thus, it can be assumed that the spatial structure of Russian cities is a perfect illustration of the Transit Oriented Development (TOD). However, the spatial structure of the majority of the Russian cities, which has been developing during the rapid urbanization in the 20th century, currently preserves and reproduces the specific extensive models peculiar to the cities in the socialist countries. The authors analyze the spatial development patterns of 13 Russian cities in order to assess the current situation and the prospects for transit oriented development in the Russian Federation. А brief history of urban spatial development during the Soviet period is provided. Fundamental differences between TOD and Soviet Style Development (SSD) and their impact on transport demand are discussed.