О чем молчит булла 1245 года? Философские основания низложения Фридриха II
In this chapter are analyzed philosophical aspects of the conflict between the Roman emperor Frederick II and the popes Honorius III, Gregory IV and Innocent IV.
This is the first commented critical edition of two Latin treatises by Michael Scot, astrologer and translator at the court of Frederick II, first third of XIIIth century. It is provided by an extensive historical and philological introduction.
In the next chapter of the textbook «Comparative Economics» is analyzed as a feudal society the highest and last stage of the traditional economy. Uncovered background, contents and origins of feudalism. communal character of the feudal corporations, social class structure of society. We investigate the monopoly of the ruling class on the ground and the identity of the direct producer, forms and types of feudal rent, shows the value and limitations of the guild system, particularly the development of merchant's and usurer's capital in the Middle Ages. Much attention is paid to the characterization of the mentality of the era of feudalism, medieval notions of wealth and labor, the type of Christian culture.
Talisman practices of the Renaissance are usually considered as a subject of history of medicine or history of science as opposed to philosophy as a coherent and systematic discipline. There are a lot of talisman descriptions with various astral influences in the treatise of the Florentine philosopher Marsilio Ficino's Three books on life (1489). According to Neoplatonic anthropology and ontology, talismans could be understood as an expanded figurative evidence of the Universe hierarchy fully appreciated only by sage, which is characterized as a possessor of certain aptitude for the understanding of this hierarchy.
This book chapter is part of a collection of essays giving an introduction into Leibniz's Monadology. My part of this contribution discusses the conflict between mechanistic and teleological explanations of living things in the 17th century.
This article deals with the critical analysis St. Thomas' cosmological argument which was undertaken by an american theologian and analytical philosopher Alvin C. Plantinga. The ontologies of former and newer scholastics are compared in order to clarify logical and ontological assumptions of Plantinga's criticism.
This paper deals with some problems of matching contemporary analytic theology to medieval scholasticism. It is demonstrated that those “weak points” of Christian creed which the former are trying to vindicate cannot be understood properly within the “states of affairs ontology”, but only in terms of the “ontology of things”.
This chapter is devoted to the foundation and first years of the oldest State university of the West: the studium generale of Naples, created, 1224, by the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II. The author analyses texts of the corresponding charters issued by the Magna curia, destinies of and works by the first eminent professors and students of this university, among them Thomas of Aquino.
"The Millennial Kingdom" is an outline of medieval christian culture, from the time of Fathers up to its apogee around 1300, the age of Dante. The author does not pretend to have described and analyzed all facets of spiritual life during this long period, he focuses on that ones, in which intellectuals, writers and painters left especially deep imprints. The reader will find here, together with great authors and masterpieces, little known and studied monuments in author's photographs, as well as texts translated from latin, old french and other late medieval vernacular languages. These quotations from the primary sources are allways accompanied by polemical reflections on several opinions and clichés, methodological positions and estimations about the Middle Ages, current among historians and in human sciences in XXth and XXIth centuries.